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K
Krings, B.  2009.  {Global restructuring and its effects on occupations: towards a new division of labor?}, Dec , Number 12/2009: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

The following contribution considers whether global restructuring creates new forms of the division of labor. On the basis of empirical data from a comparative project in 14 European countries, the author supports the hypothesis that in addition to the ongoing process of the internationalization of work, there are ‘hidden’ effects at the local level. From the perspective of three occupational clusters, dynamics can be observed which have differing impacts on the occupational groups. Thus, there is a simultaneous process of restructuring and redefining skills, labor processes and the working organization which forms the daily reality of working men and women.

Krings, B-J, Weinberger N.  2018.  Assistant without Master? Some Conceptual Implications of Assistive Robotics in Health Care Technologies. 18(1) AbstractWebsite

The subject of “technical assistants” in inpatient care is currently being widely discussed in scientific and public circles. In many cases, though, it has become apparent that the umbrella term “assistive technologies”, also in the context of robotics, is very contrived. Against this background, the authors of this article reflect on the meaning of “assistance” in socio-technical systems, and critically review its relevance. To understand and demonstrate “assistive” functions, it is essential to establish a frame of reference. The re-evaluation of an empirical study of people with dementia in inpatient care has revealed the functional character of technical assistance systems. The results, however, show that the theoretical debate on the social and organisational function of “assistance” in these technical fields is still lacking. Therefore, the reflections in this paper may also provide some starting points for this debate.

Krings, B.  2006.  {The sociological perspective on the knowledge-based society: assumptions, facts and visions}. , Number 7110: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

The paper will present the central discourse of the knowledge-based society. Already in the 1960s the debate of the industrial society already raised the question whether there can be considered a paradigm shift towards a knowledge-based society. Some prominent authors already foreseen ‘knowledge’ as the main indicator in order to displace ‘labour’ and ‘capital’ as the main driving forces of the capitalistic development. Today on the political level and also in many scientific disciplines the assumption that we are already living in a knowledge-based society seems obvious. Although we still do not have a theory of the knowledge-based society and there still exist a methodological gap about the empirical indicators, the vision of a knowledge-based society determines at least the perception of the Western societies. In a first step the author will pinpoint the assumptions about the knowledge-based society on three levels: on the societal, on the organisational and on the individual level. These assumptions are relied on the following topics: a) The role of the information and communication technologies; b) The dynamic development of globalisation as an ‘evolutionary’ process; c) The increasing importance of knowledge management within organisations; d) The changing role of the state within the economic processes. Not only the differentiation between the levels but also the revision of the assumptions of a knowledge-based society will show that the ‘topics raised in the debates’ cannot be considered as the results of a profound societal paradigm shift. However what seems very impressive is the normative and virtual shift towards a concept of modernity, which strongly focuses on the role of technology as a driving force as well as on the global economic markets, which has to be accepted. Therefore – according to the official debate - the successful adaptation of these processes seems the only way to meet the knowledge-based society. Analysing the societal changes on the

Krings, B, Moniz A.  2001.  {El desarrollo socio-cultural de la sociedad de la información: Competencia o cooperación?[Socio-cultural development of information society: competition or co-operation?]}, Jun , Number 6885: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

The results presented in this article are related to the field of investigation defined inside the European TSER project on "Information Society, Work and Generation of New Forms of Social Exclusion " (SOWING). The thematic center of the project is connected with the question of the relations that exist between the introduction of information technologies (IT) and the changes in the waged labour as well as in the organisation of work systems. The introduction of these technologies transformed specially the activities on services as well as certain branches, where great changes of the organization of work for the next future assume, which are discussed within the margin of the debate on future forms of work. The tendencies within the occupational structures indicate an individualisation of the insecurities and an opening of the occupational carreers. For these reasons, the development of the occupational carreers is more and more bound to the biographical planning. The institutionalised occupational model is changing very strongly, which in the long term will take to social and cultural changes, not only in the professional life, but also in the private life.

Krings, B-J, Nierling L.  2015.  About the attraction of machine logic. The field of elderly care.. he next horizon of technology assessment. :217-221., Prague: Technology Centre ASCR
Kovács, I, Moniz A.  1994.  {Trends for the development of anthropocentric production systems in small less industrialised countries: The case of Portugal}, Jul. , Number 6551: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

This paper analyses the problems and trends of the introduction of anthropocentric production systems (APS) in small less industrialized member states of the European Union, specifically the case of Portugal, based on the report for the FAST-Anthropocentric Technology Assessment Project (Monitor Programme) on “Prospects and conditions for APS in Europe by the 21st century”. Research teams from all countries of the European Community, as well as researchers from USA, Japan and Australia were participating in this project. The aim of this paper is to characterize APS and to present some special considerations related to the socioeconomic factors affecting the prospects and conditions for APS in Portugal. APS is defined as a system based on the utilization of skilled human resources and flexible technology adapted to the needs of flexible and participative organization. Among socioeconomic factors, some critical aspects for the development of APS will be focused, namely technological infrastructure, management strategies, perceived impact of introduction of automated systems on the division of labor and organizational structure, educational and vocational training and social actors strategies towards industrial automation. This analysis is based on a sample of industrial firms, built up for qualitative analysis, and on case studies analysis that can be reference examples for further development of APS, and not just for economic policy purposes alone. We have also analyzed the type of existing industrial relations, the union and employer strategies and some aspects of public policies towards the introduction of new technologies in the order to understand the extent to which there exist obstacles to and favorable conditions for the diffusion of anthropocentric systems. Finally some recommendations are presented to stress the trends for the implementation and development of anthropocentric production systems in Portugal.

Kovács, I, Moniz A.  2002.  {The Sociology of Work and the work of sociologists in Portugal}, Apr. , Number 7891: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

A propose for this article is to present information on the emergence of the knowledge field of sociology of work and labor studies in Portugal. The period of 1974-1984 produced an interesting bibliography in the fields of social stratification, labor conflicts and social history. However, and since the mid-1980s, significant changes have emerged. There took place an increased theoretical diversity and also there was a major preoccupation with the development of a more professional teaching of the discipline. At this time, the first graduated specialists in Sociology appeared in the labor market since 1980, working in municipalities, industrial firms, public health institutions, schools, or even in research and development (R&D) units. The Portuguese association in this field (APSIOT) organized many scientific meetings, debates with unionists, managers and politicians, beside the regular publication of review “Organizações e Trabalho” (Organization and Work) since 1989. It started the diffusion of a professional culture of sociologists who associate science and their occupation concerning themselves not only with scientific quality, but also with technical competence and social responsibility. At the same time, one could assist to the participation of sociologists in the social and organizational molding of new technologies in order to promote alternative production systems.

Kovács, I, Moniz A.  1994.  Trends for the development of anthropocentric production systems in small less industrialised countries: The case of Portugal, Jul. , Number 6551: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

This paper analyses the problems and trends of the introduction of anthropocentric production systems (APS) in small less industrialized member states of the European Union, specifically the case of Portugal, based on the report for the FAST-Anthropocentric Technology Assessment Project (Monitor Programme) on “Prospects and conditions for APS in Europe by the 21st century”. Research teams from all countries of the European Community, as well as researchers from USA, Japan and Australia were participating in this project. The aim of this paper is to characterize APS and to present some special considerations related to the socioeconomic factors affecting the prospects and conditions for APS in Portugal. APS is defined as a system based on the utilization of skilled human resources and flexible technology adapted to the needs of flexible and participative organization. Among socioeconomic factors, some critical aspects for the development of APS will be focused, namely technological infrastructure, management strategies, perceived impact of introduction of automated systems on the division of labor and organizational structure, educational and vocational training and social actors strategies towards industrial automation. This analysis is based on a sample of industrial firms, built up for qualitative analysis, and on case studies analysis that can be reference examples for further development of APS, and not just for economic policy purposes alone. We have also analyzed the type of existing industrial relations, the union and employer strategies and some aspects of public policies towards the introduction of new technologies in the order to understand the extent to which there exist obstacles to and favorable conditions for the diffusion of anthropocentric systems. Finally some recommendations are presented to stress the trends for the implementation and development of anthropocentric production systems in Portugal.

Kovács, I, Moniz A.  2002.  The Sociology of Work and the work of sociologists in Portugal, Apr. , Number 7891: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

A propose for this article is to present information on the emergence of the knowledge field of sociology of work and labor studies in Portugal. The period of 1974-1984 produced an interesting bibliography in the fields of social stratification, labor conflicts and social history. However, and since the mid-1980s, significant changes have emerged. There took place an increased theoretical diversity and also there was a major preoccupation with the development of a more professional teaching of the discipline. At this time, the first graduated specialists in Sociology appeared in the labor market since 1980, working in municipalities, industrial firms, public health institutions, schools, or even in research and development (R&D) units. The Portuguese association in this field (APSIOT) organized many scientific meetings, debates with unionists, managers and politicians, beside the regular publication of review “Organiza{\c c}ões e Trabalho” (Organization and Work) since 1989. It started the diffusion of a professional culture of sociologists who associate science and their occupation concerning themselves not only with scientific quality, but also with technical competence and social responsibility. At the same time, one could assist to the participation of sociologists in the social and organizational molding of new technologies in order to promote alternative production systems.

H
Helberger, N, Kerényi K, Krings B, Lambers R, Orwat C, Riehm U, van Gompel S, Dufft N.  2004.  {Digital Rights Management and Consumer Acceptability: A Multi-Disciplinary Discussion of Consumer Concerns and Expectations}. , Number 6641: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

The INDICARE project – the Informed Dialogue about Consumer Acceptability of DRM Solutions in Europe – has been set up to raise awareness about consumer and user issues of Digital Rights Management (DRM) solutions. One of the main goals of the INDICARE project is to contribute to the consensus-building among multiple players with heterogeneous interests in the digital environment. To promote this process and to contribute to the creation of a common level of understanding is the aim of the present report. It provides an overview of consumer concerns and expectations regarding DRMs, and discusses the findings from a social, legal, technical and business perspective. A general overview of the existing EC initiatives shows that questions of consumer acceptability of DRM have only recently begun to draw wider attention. A review of the relevant statements, studies and reports confirms that awareness of consumer concerns is still at a low level. Five major categories of concerns have been distinguished so far: (1) fair conditions of use and access to digital content, (2) privacy, (3) interoperability, (4) transparency and (5) various aspects of consumer friendliness. From the legal point of view, many of the identified issues go beyond the scope of copyright law, i.e. the field of law where DRM was traditionally discussed. Often they are a matter of general or sector-specific consumer protection law. Furthermore, it is still unclear to what extent technology and an appropriate design of technical solutions can provide an answer to some of the concerns of consumers. One goal of the technical chapter was exactly to highlight some of these technical possibilities. Finally, it is shown that consumer acceptability of DRM is important for the economic success of different business models based on DRM. Fair and responsive DRM design can be a profitable strategy, however DRM-free alternatives do exist too.

F
Fournier, G, Hinderer H, Schmid D, Seign R, Baumann M.  2012.  {The new mobility paradigm: Transformation of value chain and business models}, November. Enterprise and Work Innovation Studies. 8:9-40., Number 8 AbstractWebsite

Four categories of innovations have been identified by Freeman and Perez: incremental innovations, radical innovations, new technological systems (systemic innovations), and technological revolutions or new techno-economic paradigms. New techno-economic paradigms represent changes in technological systems that are so far-reaching in their effects that they have a major influence on the behaviour of the entire economy. Scarcity of oil and external costs like global warming are the key arguments and the main drivers of the change of the current paradigm. They will affect especially the mobility of individuals and the interlinked business models. Novel business models within newly created markets will raise e.g. extended mobility services, activities aiming at the infrastructure, new opportunities in the field of energy transmission and supply and even new strategies of recycling, reusing or reducing the use of resources in order to address global scarcity issues. Especially for the established players of the automotive industry like original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) or 1st and 2nd tier suppliers this implicates opportunities and risks at the same time. But also new players will get the chance to create and enter new markets with new or extended products or services and lead the new value chain. This paper compiles and evaluates current approaches and business models of selected OEMs together with upcoming players. Additionally their positions within the existing value chain are being analyzed and classified. Bringing together the identified drivers of changes with current trends within the automotive industry the authors also show new concepts of extended business models, e.g. the idea of an ecosystem, that have the potential to cause an additional shift of power within the global mobility value chain.

Fischer, M, Krings B-J, Moniz AB, Zimpelmann E.  2017.  Herausforderungen der Mensch-Roboter-Kollaboration. Lernen & Lehren. 2017(32):8-14.
Fiedeler, U, Krings B.  2006.  {Naturalness and Neuronal Implants – Changes in the perception of human beings}. , Number 8501: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

With our contribution we would like to refer to the debate on nanotechnology (NT) and its implications for the public discourse on the relationship of human beings and technologies. Within NT the convergence of some technologies has been considered as a crucial step towards the long term objective of “enhancing human performance”. The discussion was initiated with an US-American workshop in the year 2002, where the innovative character of converging technology (CT) was strongly underlined (Roco 2002). In the final document of the workshop futuristic and far reaching scenarios on technical development based on NT and on CT were presented. First we address the implications of the mentioned document for research policy in general and especially of NT. Based on the example of neural implants we second qualify the normative expectations within the debate without however denying the helpfulness of these innovations especially in the field of medicine. But we third agree on a critical discussion, which consider a new quality of technological penetration into social and human processes.

D
Dusseldorp, M, Beecroft R, Moniz A.  2009.  {Technology Assessment and Education: Introduction}, Oct. , Number 19522: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

“Theory and Practice” of TA, which is referred to in the title of this journal “TATuP”, is usually addressed as a question of TA research. But science is more than research: the field of teaching requires just as much attention, both practically and theoretically. Therefore, a mere collection of individual teaching experiences and best practice examples does not provide a strong enough basis to discuss questions of TA teaching, these must also be embedded in a theoretical context and discussed in their relation to research. In this special issue, we aim to contribute to a combination of theoretical and practical approaches to the relation of TA and “Bildung”.

Dusseldorp, M, Beecroft R, Moniz A.  2009.  Technology Assessment and Education: Introduction, Oct. , Number 19522: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

“Theory and Practice” of TA, which is referred to in the title of this journal “TATuP”, is usually addressed as a question of TA research. But science is more than research: the field of teaching requires just as much attention, both practically and theoretically. Therefore, a mere collection of individual teaching experiences and best practice examples does not provide a strong enough basis to discuss questions of TA teaching, these must also be embedded in a theoretical context and discussed in their relation to research. In this special issue, we aim to contribute to a combination of theoretical and practical approaches to the relation of TA and “Bildung”.

C
Cândido, AC.  2012.  {Processo de desenvolvimento e difusão de cloud computing: estudo sobre as redes de colaboração no Brasil [Development and diffusion process of cloud computing: Study on collaboration networks in Brazi}. , Number 05/2012: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

This report is the result of the presentation of the Thesis Plan, performed on December 13, 2011, during the activities of the Winter School of Doctoral Program in Technology Assessment. It is intended to describe the main information about the Thesis Plan and also the definition of the main concepts involved. Can also view the presentation file that is available on the page of the student's PhD thesis Ana Cândido in Moodle (http://moodle.fct.unl.pt/mod/resource/view.php?inpopup=true&id=157805). The following step in this report will be the development of the discipline of “Project IV” and so also the preparation for Doctoral Conference will take place in June 2012.

Cândido, AC, Rosa IM.  2012.  {Políticas de Financiamento de I&D em Portugal [R&D financing policies in Portugal]}. , Number 11/2012: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

This paper aims to present the main events over the years on public policies for financing R & D in Portugal, with special focus on the QREN (National Strategic Reference Framework). Between 2007 and 2013, is the QREN which provides the framework to be applied to economic policy in Portugal. The Incentives System for Companies Investment is one of the key instruments of economic promotion policies, particularly in terms of promoting innovation and regional development. The review made shows us that there is not still a systemic and integrated policy innovation in Portugal, but there is a set of instruments that can play a role in this policy and also has missed coherence and coordination between them.

Cândido, AC.  2011.  {Inovação Disruptiva: Reflexões sobre as suas características e implicações no mercado [Disruptive innovation: Reflexions about features and market implications]}. , Number 05/2011: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

The study aims at discussing the challenges companies face a highly competitive market, emphasizing the implications of disruptive innovations mainly for companies established in the market. In order to understand the origin of the concept of disruptive innovation, the study also presents the results of network analysis carried out considering the following information: journals in which articles were published, the country of affiliation of the authors, keywords and year of publication. The reflections presented in the study lead us to various conclusions, among them the perception that organizations need more attention to the anticipation of new trends and scenarios in order to fend off the effects of a disruptive innovation introduced.

Cândido, AC.  2012.  {Open Innovation and Social Network Analysis}, November. Enterprise and Work Innovation Studies. 8:41-55., Number 8 AbstractWebsite

In this work we propose the use of Social Network Analysis to understand the positioning of the concept of Open Innovation in the literature, offering thereby a complementary approach to existing literature review up to now. The main motivation of this network analysis is to contribute to the understanding of the concept of Open Innovation, with its spread to different areas of knowledge over the years and its relationship with other concepts in the literature. Some 403 articles published in the database of the Science Direct during the years 2003 to 2011 were analyzed. The data was collected separately by year, considering the following information: journals in which the articles were published; countries of origin of the articles’ authors, keywords of these articles and year of publication. The results reveal the intense growth of the use of the words "Open Innovation" in articles from different areas of knowledge, as well as its increasing interconnection with other concepts, allowing the understanding of its diffusion in the literature.

Cândido, AC.  2012.  {Esforços para a construção da visão prospectiva no Brasil: evidências e lições que podem ser retiradas do estudo cooperativo entre Japão e Finlândia [Efforts to build a foresight vision in Brazil: evi}. , Number 08/2012: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

In the last decades, with the consequent strong competitiveness of an increasingly globalized world, the foresight studies have gained importance in the business environment and also became important tool for formulation of public policy. This work examines the recent foresight studies from Brazil, Finland and Japan, to understand the main goals, motivations and methodologies used. And finally drawing lessons from international cooperation in foresight studies that might be interesting for the Brazilian case. It can be concluded it is extremely useful to look at the studies conducted by countries with more experience in the foresight as a way to deepen and develop methods analysis. The work conducted by Japan and Finland showed that is possible succeed through studies in cooperation, even with the different features of the national reality.

B
Böhle, K, Moniz A.  2015.  No Countries for Old Technology Assessment? Sketching the Efforts and Opportunities to Establish Parliamentary TA in Spain and Portugal EconStor Open Access Articles. :29-44. AbstractWebsite

If the question is whether there is a parliamentary technology assessment (PTA) unit in Portugal or Spain, the clear answer is that there is still no such unit at the central state level at the present time, neither in Portugal nor in Spain. The question then has to be modified addressing previous and current efforts to establish PTA and the current framework conditions and opportunities. Practices of PTA are framed here as a democratic innovation in the context of changes in representative democracies. Against this backdrop, the efforts and opportunities to establish PTA in Spain and Portugal are studied. By sketching these developments and outlining the opportunities in these countries, our aim is to contribute to the debate about the likelihood of a new wave of PTA in Europe (Hennen/Nierling 2014).

Boavida, N.  2011.  {A selecção de indicadores no estudo prospectivo “Forecasting the carbon footprint to road freight transport in 2020” [Indicator selection in the foresight study “Forecasting the carbon footprint to ro}, Jun. , Number 06/2011: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

This work examines a recent study that used various forecasting methods and in particular the Delphi method, to understand how the indicators were selected during the development of the prospective study. It can be concluded that the indicators in the study were selected through discussion on existing knowledge (formal and informal) and the broad consensus of the respective community, which established and confirmed the choice of indicators as the most relevant to prospectively examine the matter concerned. The technical support provided to choose certain forecasting methods as well as to choose the methods that could not be used throughout the development of the work, contributed to the strength of the list of indicators.

Boavida, N, Cabrita N, Moretto SM.  2010.  {Análise do processo de participação pública no projecto de Alta Velocidade Ferroviária [Analysis of the public participation process in the High-Speed Railway project]}. , Number 06/2010: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

The study focuses on the public participation during the decision-making process of the High Speed Rail Project (popularly known as TGV) in Portugal. The study analyzes the media references on the topic and its actors in a quantitative and qualitative way from September 2008 to November 2009 anchored in the 2009 Legislatives and Local elections. The work concludes that despite the political polarization around the High Speed Rail Project, contributing to bring it to public debate, it didn’t allow for an improvement in qualitative information that could allow the emergence of an active and informed citizen participation in the debate.

Boavida, N, Moniz A, Laranja M.  2014.  Towards an assessment of the Portuguese e-mobility case; The Mobi-E. Technology assessment and policy areas of great transitions. (Michalek, T., Hebakova, L., Hennen, L., Scherz, C., Nierling, L., Hahn, J., Eds.).:263-269., Prague: Technology Centre ASCR Abstract
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Boavida, N, Baumann M, Moniz AB, Schippl J, Reichenbach M, Weil M.  2013.  {Technology transition towards electric mobility - technology assessment as a tool for policy design}, Mar. , Number 04/2013: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

The paper aims to understand the degree of transition towards e-mobility. The assumption is that the degree of convergence between actors of each system (batteries, vehicles, grid, policies, business models and consumers) is an indicator of changes in the present socio-technical regime. After an introduction to the socio-technical transition towards e-mobility, the paper presents and discusses three technology assessment approaches to several projects related to technology, society and politics. There are several thematic crossovers between all projects presented leading to a synergetic technology assessment. This output results from the overlapping areas between the cases and can be used to first assess the extent of changes in the present socio-technical regime, as well as to extract standards and regulations, acceptance/risk analyses and behaviour changes that could be significant in the context of a transition towards electric mobility.