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Maia, MJ.  2013.  {Equity in access to MRI equipment: the Portuguese case}, Feb. , Number 02/2013: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a method of image diagnose proven to be of undeniable importance when it comes to neuro and cardio related diseases. In fact, these diseases (such as: ischemic heart disease, stroke and acute myocardial infection) have high incidence in Portugal. For these reasons, the allocation of this medical technology should not be considered with light thoughts. In fact, making decision of resource allocation in health care can be a very complex and contested matter. The impacts of new technology allocation, such MRI, can be assessed in a variety of ways. However, a fundamental component should always be present: the use of evidence-based decision-making methods. One of these methods is Technology Assessment (TA). This paper aims to characterize the equity on access of the Portuguese population in general, to a specific medical device such as MRI, under the TA point of view. It is hoped to promote a bridge of scientific knowledge between the gap on research and policy-making through TA that can emerge as a tool to aid decision-makers in the organization of health systems. There are gaps in providing healthcare, due to geographical imbalances, with some areas unable to provide certain specialized services, as hospitals in the countryside do not provide all medical specialties. Portugal has also a large independent private sector that provides diagnostic and therapeutic services to NHS users under contracts called conventions. These medical contracts cover ambulatory health facilities for laboratory tests and examinations such as diagnostic tests and Radiology. However, there is no convention from the NHS when concerning the MRI exam. Therefore, this reality can be considered a limitation in the access of the general population to this kind of clinical exam. TA can play an useful and important role in helping the decision-makers to explore potential gains that might be achieved by introducing a more rational decision making into health care ma

Maia, MJ.  2012.  {Technology governance in radiology: the example of magnetic resonance imaging}, Feb. , Number 02/2012: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

WThis report aims to be the gathering of the main ideas that culminated in the presentation at the 1st Winter School of the PhD Programme on Technology Assessment (FCT-UNL) in December 2010. It is a guideline for future work development regarding Technology Assessment in Radiology, particularly having Magnetic Resonance Imaging, as an example. Therefore, as a background, it is necessary to understand what is “Technology Assessment”, how it developed and what it Europe’s interest in this area. Doing a transposition of this subject to health area, it is also important to understand the particularities of Health Technology Assessment. Portugal framework on this subject will also be addressed. As so, the Portuguese National Health System is characterized and the decision-making stakeholders identified, has well as the competences for the decision-making process in general. More generally, the different stakeholders perception involved in decision making, the mapping skills on technology assessment and decision making, the identification of indicators present in this decision making in Radiology, particularly in Magnetic Resonance area, are subjects to be addressed. To accomplish this, a research methodology was outlined, so that six research questions could be answered and five hypotheses could be accepted or refuted, in the future. With this research methodology, the Portuguese state of the art Magnetic Resonance equipment existence will be studied, using a survey as a resource. In the future, a mapping stakeholder technique will be used to identify the decision making key stakeholders and a survey will be applied to map theirs skills and competences in the process, where a pre-test was already applied.

Maia, MJ.  2011.  {Decision-making process in radiology: the magnetic resonance example in the TA context}, November. Enterprise and Work Innovation Studies. 7:75-101., Number 7 AbstractWebsite

In order to understand the decision-making process in a Radiology Department, taking the Magnetic Resonance Equipment as an example, this paper reports a project to be followed. It is a guideline for future work development regarding Technology Assessment in Radiology. The Theoretical Framework is divided is three big issues. The first is “Technology Assessment”. Starting with the definition of some important concepts, the history and development of Technology Assessment will be addressed. The aim of this issue is to give a general main idea concerning TA contextualization. Doing a transposition of this subject to health area, it is also important to understand the particularities of Health Technology Assessment, second issue. Portugal framework on this subject will also be addressed. As so, the Portuguese National Health System is characterized and the decision-making stakeholders identified, has well as the competences for the decision-making process in general. The third issue is Decision-Making and its aim is to give a general elucidation on decision-making matters. To accomplish this, a research methodology was outlined, so that six research questions could be answered and five hypotheses could be accepted or refuted, in the future. With this research methodology, the Portuguese state of the art Magnetic Resonance equipment existence will be studied, using a survey as a resource. In the future, a mapping stakeholder technique will be used to identify the decision making key stakeholders and a survey will be applied to map theirs skills and competences in the process, where a pre-test was already applied. The results of this pre-test are presented.

Maia, MJ.  2011.  {Innovation scoring no sector de serviços de saúde: um estudo de caso [Innovation scoring in the sector health services: a case study]}. , Number 08/2011: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

Nowadays, innovation has been understood as an overall strategy for a company. Thus, it should remain adapted, flexible and responsive to the market changes, where the company operates. For a company to succeed in the innovation process, it should be clear about their position on this issue. There are several dynamic systems of control and management innovation. One of these systems is the Innovation Scoring, developed by COTEC Portugal, a Corporate Association for Innovation supported by the Portuguese government. The Innovation Scoring is a support tool to encourage national companies to develop innovation in a more systematic, efficient and effective way, contributing to the strategic thinking of the company, about their innovation processes. It allows a more indepth knowledge about the different dimensions that sustain innovation processes. It allows also the identification of areas with potential improvement. In order to analyse and diagnose the innovative capabilities of a real organization, have applied the Innovation Scoring survey. One of the Central Hospital in the Greater Lisbon area (Public Business Entity), and more specifically, its Imaging Department was the case studied. Innovation Scoring System is a self-diagnosis survey and therefore self-fulfilled. However, to make the results more reliable and free from bias, it was decided to adapt the application method. Thus, interviews were conducted and the responses were used to complete the questionnaire later on. In the next step, we proceed to result analysis from the point of view of the innovation at the case studied. As a final result, the Hospital Imaging Department received a weighting of 224 in 1000, for the Innovation Index, which means that the Department has much to develop and work, regarding these issues. The results should serve as a basis of motivation and strategic thinking for the Imaging Department, in relation to their innovation processes. This working paper is structured into seven ch

Maia, MJ, Krings B-J.  2015.  Robots in surgery: Transformation of work in the operation room. Practices of innovation and responsibility: Insights from methods, governance and action. :111-128., Berlin: AKA
Maia, MJ, Moiteiro AI, Horstink L, Farelo M, Antunes R.  2012.  {Análise de um processo decisório controverso: a co-incineração em Souselas [Analysis of a controversial decision process: the co-incineration at Souselas]}. , Number 10/2012: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

The scientific controversy generated around the destiny given to the fraction of hazardous industrial waste produced in Portugal and how the country dealt with this situation was the stand out point in Souselas case. Here, the dominant aspect of the analysis focused on the implementation of a solution for the treatment of hazardous industrial waste. These wastes result from industrial processes contain or are contaminated, by substances that, at certain concentrations, represent a risk to human health or to the environment. Their treatment can be done using co-incineration in existing cement factories. Having in mind the environment analysis of a controversial process, through the statements made by the different actors involved, the case of Souselas was our object of study. Initially, the actors involved in the process were identified and characterized, in terms of position, interests and / or concerns. This analysis has strengthened with the gathering of documentary elements of analysis. In a second phase the historical process was prepared. Only then, the conditions to make an interpretation of what really happened in the process were gathered, then , it was possible to identify which parts were successful and unsuccessful, and to interpret “why” these successes and failures occurred. Thus, after the identification of key variables and leverage points, a causal diagram and a schematic simulation of the behaviour of reference in case Souselas was designed. We conclude that the process of Souselas was a significant milestone with regard to social organization and spontaneous local actors in situations of opposition to central government decisions with local impact. It was also a turning point in governance according to the model of representative democracy, whose technocratic and elitist character is called into question. The Souselas case emphasized itself as a microcosm on the conflict of interests that we find at a global level heightened since the 90s and that

Machado, T, Moniz A.  2003.  {Assembling Toyota in Portugal}, Jun. , Number 5881: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

A lot has been written over the last decade with regard to Toyota and the productive model associated to it (toyota-ism). And more specifically concerning the "(…) best-seller that changed the... sociological world" (Castillo, 1998: 31). But the case of Salvador Caetano’s Ovar Industrial Division (OID), that assembles Toyota light commercial vehicles in Portugal, allows us to put forward a sub-hypothesis that fits into the analysis schema proposed in the First GERPISA International Program – "In short, GERPISA members considered that the plurality of models was much a plausible hypothesis deserving testing as that of the diffusion of a unique model (…)" (Boyer, Freyssenet, 2001: 42). So we add: and within Toyota itself, is it not true that different productive models co-exist – especially when delocalised – depending, amongst other factors, on the degree of Toyota participation – in terms of capital and technology transfer – in the local company (strong or weak) and on the markets to be reached (internal or external)? If so, what work system can we expect to find in a plant that presents such peculiar characteristics as this one?

Machado, T, Moniz A.  2003.  Assembling Toyota in Portugal, Jun. , Number 5881: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

A lot has been written over the last decade with regard to Toyota and the productive model associated to it (toyota-ism). And more specifically concerning the "(…) best-seller that changed the... sociological world" (Castillo, 1998: 31). But the case of Salvador Caetano’s Ovar Industrial Division (OID), that assembles Toyota light commercial vehicles in Portugal, allows us to put forward a sub-hypothesis that fits into the analysis schema proposed in the First GERPISA International Program – "In short, GERPISA members considered that the plurality of models was much a plausible hypothesis deserving testing as that of the diffusion of a unique model (…)" (Boyer, Freyssenet, 2001: 42). So we add: and within Toyota itself, is it not true that different productive models co-exist – especially when delocalised – depending, amongst other factors, on the degree of Toyota participation – in terms of capital and technology transfer – in the local company (strong or weak) and on the markets to be reached (internal or external)? If so, what work system can we expect to find in a plant that presents such peculiar characteristics as this one?

Machado, T, Moniz A.  2005.  {Models and Practices in the Motor Vehicle Industry – contrasting cases from the Portuguese experience}, Jun. , Number 6171: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

This paper presents and discusses two case studies in the Portuguese motor vehicle industry – Salvador Caetano’s Ovar Industrial Division (SCOID), a ‘Brownfield site’ with minority Toyota ownership; and Autoeuropa, a ‘Greenfield site’ wholly owned by Volkswagen. Basically, it considers the scope for the meaningful application of ‘Japanese’ organisational methods in these contexts, focusing on the human factor – i.e. as close as possible to the actors on the shop floor. After providing some insights into the Portuguese automotive industry, it profiles both SCOID and Autoeuropa and assesses each of their methods of work, within this balance of commitment between global and local. The main findings reveal the lag that can exist between theoretical models (namely those following a geographical criteria) and the actual practice carried out by manufacturers when tested outside their point of geographical origin.

Machado, T, Moniz A.  2005.  Models and Practices in the Motor Vehicle Industry – contrasting cases from the Portuguese experience, Jun. , Number 6171: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

This paper presents and discusses two case studies in the Portuguese motor vehicle industry – Salvador Caetano’s Ovar Industrial Division (SCOID), a ‘Brownfield site’ with minority Toyota ownership; and Autoeuropa, a ‘Greenfield site’ wholly owned by Volkswagen. Basically, it considers the scope for the meaningful application of ‘Japanese’ organisational methods in these contexts, focusing on the human factor – i.e. as close as possible to the actors on the shop floor. After providing some insights into the Portuguese automotive industry, it profiles both SCOID and Autoeuropa and assesses each of their methods of work, within this balance of commitment between global and local. The main findings reveal the lag that can exist between theoretical models (namely those following a geographical criteria) and the actual practice carried out by manufacturers when tested outside their point of geographical origin.

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Laranja, M, Boavida N.  2012.  {The use of indicators and evidence in governance and policy development of Science, Technology and Innovation}. , Number 07/2012: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

In this paper we reflect upon how policy-makers look for, interpret and use evidence for reflection and policy development. We propose an exploratory framework that sets out two of the elements necessary to a conceptualization of what may explain the way in which evidence and indicators are used in STI policy development: the type of evaluative approach and the styles of governance.

K
Kuhlmann, S, Boekholt P, Georghiou L, Guy K, Heraud J-A, Laredo P, Lemola T, Loveridge D, Luukkonen T, Moniz A, Polt W, Rip.  1999.  {Improving Distributed Intelligence in Complex Innovation Systems}, Jun. , Number 6426: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

Science and technology (S&T) are considered to be a central source, or at least a basic medium, of societal and industrial innovation, while innovation is conceived to basically feed the regeneration of our welfare. The suppliers of S&T in Europe as well as the users of their „products“, are confronted with a number of challenges today. We want to stress here that it was not the primary goal of our Advanced Science & Technology Policy Planning (ASTPP) Network to come up with proposals how the strategic character of European S&T policies could be strengthened. The ASTPP-network instead focuses on one aspect: the provision of strategic intelligence necessary to identify and develop strategic choices. The underlying hypothesis is that the existing body of experiences with technology foresight, technology assessment and S/T policy evaluation provides a basis for the development of an advanced S&T policy „planning“ approach by trying to enhance, interlink or even integrate the growing, but still dispersed experience in these three areas of intelligence. By „intelligent“ we mean that the inter-relatedness of S&T, industrial efforts, societal needs and political interventions becomes more transparent so that interactive collaboration between them will be facilitated.

Kuhlmann, S, Boekholt P, Georghiou L, Guy K, Heraud J-A, Laredo P, Lemola T, Loveridge D, Luukkonen T, Moniz A, Polt W, Ri.  1999.  Improving Distributed Intelligence in Complex Innovation Systems, Jun. , Number 6426: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

Science and technology (S&T) are considered to be a central source, or at least a basic medium, of societal and industrial innovation, while innovation is conceived to basically feed the regeneration of our welfare. The suppliers of S&T in Europe as well as the users of their „products“, are confronted with a number of challenges today. We want to stress here that it was not the primary goal of our Advanced Science & Technology Policy Planning (ASTPP) Network to come up with proposals how the strategic character of European S&T policies could be strengthened. The ASTPP-network instead focuses on one aspect: the provision of strategic intelligence necessary to identify and develop strategic choices. The underlying hypothesis is that the existing body of experiences with technology foresight, technology assessment and S/T policy evaluation provides a basis for the development of an advanced S&T policy „planning“ approach by trying to enhance, interlink or even integrate the growing, but still dispersed experience in these three areas of intelligence. By „intelligent“ we mean that the inter-relatedness of S&T, industrial efforts, societal needs and political interventions becomes more transparent so that interactive collaboration between them will be facilitated.

Krings, B.  2005.  {Hen or Egg? The relationship between IC-technologies and social exclusion}, Jun , Number 9568: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

If we take a look at developments on the labour market, we find that the rate of employment stands in a close relationship to the introduction of new technologies and their social and cultural consequences. The immediate effects of new technologies on new forms of work-structures are, in fact, difficult to determine empirically. In order to avoid a strong technological bias in the scientific perspective, it seems important to consider carefully the normative objectives and goals, which are connected with the introduction of IC-technologies. But nevertheless it is difficult to define clearly the causes and the effects of new technologies as well as the technical changes and its social consequences. The intention of the article is to present the concept of social exclusion within the SOWING-project. Of course this concept is embedded in the scientific debate of the Information Society, which has a strong technological focus and represents the discussion of the Western, highly industrialized societies. But nevertheless the empirical findings of the SOWING project come to the general conclusion, that the rise of new forms of social exclusion cannot be considered as the result of the introduction of ICT, but as the result of the normative idea of a more effective and global organized economy. The social consequences of this development depend strongly on the establishment of a democratic procedure, which integrates the concerning social groups.

Krings, B-J, Hülsken-Giesler M.  2015.  Technik und Pflege in einer Gesellschaft des langen Lebens - Einführung in den Schwerpunkt. Technikfolgenabschätzung - Theorie und Praxis. 24(2):4-11.
Krings, B.  2002.  {Genderforschung und Technikentwicklung[Gender Research and Technology Development: introduction to the main topics]}. , Number 7129: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

Since the UN World Conference on Women in 1995 the discussion on gender has been extremely controverse. This issue of the Journal on Technology Assessment (from ITAS) presents and discuss the topic of gender research, and the relation between work and life and the changes that are occuring in the spheres of working lifes and daily lifes. Noch im Umfeld der 4. UN-Weltfrauenkonferenz in Peking 1995 wurde der Begriff gender extrem kontrovers diskutiert. Die Zeitschrift für Technikfolgenabschätzung des ITAS greift mit diesem Schwerpunkt erstmals das Thema „Genderforschung“ auf. Die Verknüpfung der beiden Themengebiete geht auf das Projekt: Wandel der Lebens- und Arbeitsbedingungen im Multimediabereich aus der Genderperspektive zurück, das zurzeit von ITAS im Auftrag des Sozialministerium Baden-Württemberg durchgeführt wird.

Krings, B-J, Weinberger N, Decker M.  2016.  Enabling a mobile and independent way of life for people with dementia - Needs-oriented technology development. Ageing and technology. Perspectives from the social sciences. :183-204., Bielefeld: transcript
Krings, B-J, Weinberger N.  2018.  Assistant without Master? Some Conceptual Implications of Assistive Robotics in Health Care Technologies. 18(1) AbstractWebsite

The subject of “technical assistants” in inpatient care is currently being widely discussed in scientific and public circles. In many cases, though, it has become apparent that the umbrella term “assistive technologies”, also in the context of robotics, is very contrived. Against this background, the authors of this article reflect on the meaning of “assistance” in socio-technical systems, and critically review its relevance. To understand and demonstrate “assistive” functions, it is essential to establish a frame of reference. The re-evaluation of an empirical study of people with dementia in inpatient care has revealed the functional character of technical assistance systems. The results, however, show that the theoretical debate on the social and organisational function of “assistance” in these technical fields is still lacking. Therefore, the reflections in this paper may also provide some starting points for this debate.

Krings, B, Moniz A.  2001.  El desarrollo socio-cultural de la sociedad de la información: Competencia o cooperación?[Socio-cultural development of information society: competition or co-operation?], Jun , Number 6885: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

The results presented in this article are related to the field of investigation defined inside the European TSER project on "Information Society, Work and Generation of New Forms of Social Exclusion " (SOWING). The thematic center of the project is connected with the question of the relations that exist between the introduction of information technologies (IT) and the changes in the waged labour as well as in the organisation of work systems. The introduction of these technologies transformed specially the activities on services as well as certain branches, where great changes of the organization of work for the next future assume, which are discussed within the margin of the debate on future forms of work. The tendencies within the occupational structures indicate an individualisation of the insecurities and an opening of the occupational carreers. For these reasons, the development of the occupational carreers is more and more bound to the biographical planning. The institutionalised occupational model is changing very strongly, which in the long term will take to social and cultural changes, not only in the professional life, but also in the private life.

Krings, B-J.  2006.  {The sociological perspective on the knowledge-based society: assumptions, facts and visions}, November. Enterprise and Work Innovation Studies. 2:9-19., Number 2 AbstractWebsite

The paper will present the central discourse of the knowledge-based society. Already in the 1960s the debate of the industrial society already raised the question whether there can be considered a paradigm shift towards a knowledge-based society. Some prominent authors already foreseen ‘knowledge’ as the main indicator in order to displace ‘labour’ and ‘capital’ as the main driving forces of the capitalistic development. Today on the political level and also in many scientific disciplines the assumption that we are already living in a knowledge-based society seems obvious. Although we still do not have a theory of the knowledge-based society and there still exist a methodological gap about the empirical indicators, the vision of a knowledge-based society determines at least the perception of the Western societies. In a first step the author will pinpoint the assumptions about the knowledge-based society on three levels: on the societal, on the organisational and on the individual level. These assumptions are relied on the following topics: a) The role of the information and communication technologies; b) The dynamic development of globalisation as an ‘evolutionary’ process; c) The increasing importance of knowledge management within organisations; d) The changing role of the state within the economic processes. Not only the differentiation between the levels but also the revision of the assumptions of a knowledge-based society will show that the ‘topics raised in the debates’ cannot be considered as the results of a profound societal paradigm shift. However what seems very impressive is the normative and virtual shift towards a concept of modernity, which strongly focuses on the role of technology as a driving force as well as on the global economic markets, which has to be accepted. Therefore – according to the official debate - the successful adaptation of these processes seems the only way to meet the knowledge-based society. Analysing the societal changes on the

Krings, B.  2009.  {Global restructuring and its effects on occupations: towards a new division of labor?}, Dec , Number 12/2009: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

The following contribution considers whether global restructuring creates new forms of the division of labor. On the basis of empirical data from a comparative project in 14 European countries, the author supports the hypothesis that in addition to the ongoing process of the internationalization of work, there are ‘hidden’ effects at the local level. From the perspective of three occupational clusters, dynamics can be observed which have differing impacts on the occupational groups. Thus, there is a simultaneous process of restructuring and redefining skills, labor processes and the working organization which forms the daily reality of working men and women.

Krings, B-J, Nierling L.  2015.  About the attraction of machine logic. The field of elderly care.. he next horizon of technology assessment. :217-221., Prague: Technology Centre ASCR
Krings, B.  2006.  {The sociological perspective on the knowledge-based society: assumptions, facts and visions}. , Number 7110: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

The paper will present the central discourse of the knowledge-based society. Already in the 1960s the debate of the industrial society already raised the question whether there can be considered a paradigm shift towards a knowledge-based society. Some prominent authors already foreseen ‘knowledge’ as the main indicator in order to displace ‘labour’ and ‘capital’ as the main driving forces of the capitalistic development. Today on the political level and also in many scientific disciplines the assumption that we are already living in a knowledge-based society seems obvious. Although we still do not have a theory of the knowledge-based society and there still exist a methodological gap about the empirical indicators, the vision of a knowledge-based society determines at least the perception of the Western societies. In a first step the author will pinpoint the assumptions about the knowledge-based society on three levels: on the societal, on the organisational and on the individual level. These assumptions are relied on the following topics: a) The role of the information and communication technologies; b) The dynamic development of globalisation as an ‘evolutionary’ process; c) The increasing importance of knowledge management within organisations; d) The changing role of the state within the economic processes. Not only the differentiation between the levels but also the revision of the assumptions of a knowledge-based society will show that the ‘topics raised in the debates’ cannot be considered as the results of a profound societal paradigm shift. However what seems very impressive is the normative and virtual shift towards a concept of modernity, which strongly focuses on the role of technology as a driving force as well as on the global economic markets, which has to be accepted. Therefore – according to the official debate - the successful adaptation of these processes seems the only way to meet the knowledge-based society. Analysing the societal changes on the

Krings, B-J, Rodriguez H, Schleisiek A.  2016.  Scientific knowledge and the transgression of boundaries. , Wiesbaden: Springer VS Abstract

The aim of this book is to understand and critically appraise science-based transgression dynamics in their whole complexity. It includes contributions from experts with different disciplinary backgrounds, such as philosophy, history and sociology. Thus, it is in itself an example of boundary transgession. Scientific disciplines and their objects have tended to be seen as permanent and distinct. However, science is better conceived as an activity that constantly surpasses, erases and rebuilds all kinds of boundaries, either disciplinary, socio-ethical or ecological. This transgressive capacity, a characteristic trait of science and its applications, defines us as "knowledge societies." However, scientific and technological developments are also sources of serious environmental and social concerns.