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Machado, T, Moniz A.  2003.  Assembling Toyota in Portugal, Jun. , Number 5881: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

A lot has been written over the last decade with regard to Toyota and the productive model associated to it (toyota-ism). And more specifically concerning the "(…) best-seller that changed the... sociological world" (Castillo, 1998: 31). But the case of Salvador Caetano’s Ovar Industrial Division (OID), that assembles Toyota light commercial vehicles in Portugal, allows us to put forward a sub-hypothesis that fits into the analysis schema proposed in the First GERPISA International Program – "In short, GERPISA members considered that the plurality of models was much a plausible hypothesis deserving testing as that of the diffusion of a unique model (…)" (Boyer, Freyssenet, 2001: 42). So we add: and within Toyota itself, is it not true that different productive models co-exist – especially when delocalised – depending, amongst other factors, on the degree of Toyota participation – in terms of capital and technology transfer – in the local company (strong or weak) and on the markets to be reached (internal or external)? If so, what work system can we expect to find in a plant that presents such peculiar characteristics as this one?

Machado, T, Moniz A.  2005.  {Models and Practices in the Motor Vehicle Industry – contrasting cases from the Portuguese experience}, Jun. , Number 6171: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

This paper presents and discusses two case studies in the Portuguese motor vehicle industry – Salvador Caetano’s Ovar Industrial Division (SCOID), a ‘Brownfield site’ with minority Toyota ownership; and Autoeuropa, a ‘Greenfield site’ wholly owned by Volkswagen. Basically, it considers the scope for the meaningful application of ‘Japanese’ organisational methods in these contexts, focusing on the human factor – i.e. as close as possible to the actors on the shop floor. After providing some insights into the Portuguese automotive industry, it profiles both SCOID and Autoeuropa and assesses each of their methods of work, within this balance of commitment between global and local. The main findings reveal the lag that can exist between theoretical models (namely those following a geographical criteria) and the actual practice carried out by manufacturers when tested outside their point of geographical origin.

Machado, T, Moniz A.  2003.  {Assembling Toyota in Portugal}, Jun. , Number 5881: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

A lot has been written over the last decade with regard to Toyota and the productive model associated to it (toyota-ism). And more specifically concerning the "(…) best-seller that changed the... sociological world" (Castillo, 1998: 31). But the case of Salvador Caetano’s Ovar Industrial Division (OID), that assembles Toyota light commercial vehicles in Portugal, allows us to put forward a sub-hypothesis that fits into the analysis schema proposed in the First GERPISA International Program – "In short, GERPISA members considered that the plurality of models was much a plausible hypothesis deserving testing as that of the diffusion of a unique model (…)" (Boyer, Freyssenet, 2001: 42). So we add: and within Toyota itself, is it not true that different productive models co-exist – especially when delocalised – depending, amongst other factors, on the degree of Toyota participation – in terms of capital and technology transfer – in the local company (strong or weak) and on the markets to be reached (internal or external)? If so, what work system can we expect to find in a plant that presents such peculiar characteristics as this one?

Machado, T, Moniz A.  2005.  Models and Practices in the Motor Vehicle Industry – contrasting cases from the Portuguese experience, Jun. , Number 6171: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

This paper presents and discusses two case studies in the Portuguese motor vehicle industry – Salvador Caetano’s Ovar Industrial Division (SCOID), a ‘Brownfield site’ with minority Toyota ownership; and Autoeuropa, a ‘Greenfield site’ wholly owned by Volkswagen. Basically, it considers the scope for the meaningful application of ‘Japanese’ organisational methods in these contexts, focusing on the human factor – i.e. as close as possible to the actors on the shop floor. After providing some insights into the Portuguese automotive industry, it profiles both SCOID and Autoeuropa and assesses each of their methods of work, within this balance of commitment between global and local. The main findings reveal the lag that can exist between theoretical models (namely those following a geographical criteria) and the actual practice carried out by manufacturers when tested outside their point of geographical origin.

Maia, MJ, Moiteiro AI, Horstink L, Farelo M, Antunes R.  2012.  {Análise de um processo decisório controverso: a co-incineração em Souselas [Analysis of a controversial decision process: the co-incineration at Souselas]}. , Number 10/2012: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

The scientific controversy generated around the destiny given to the fraction of hazardous industrial waste produced in Portugal and how the country dealt with this situation was the stand out point in Souselas case. Here, the dominant aspect of the analysis focused on the implementation of a solution for the treatment of hazardous industrial waste. These wastes result from industrial processes contain or are contaminated, by substances that, at certain concentrations, represent a risk to human health or to the environment. Their treatment can be done using co-incineration in existing cement factories. Having in mind the environment analysis of a controversial process, through the statements made by the different actors involved, the case of Souselas was our object of study. Initially, the actors involved in the process were identified and characterized, in terms of position, interests and / or concerns. This analysis has strengthened with the gathering of documentary elements of analysis. In a second phase the historical process was prepared. Only then, the conditions to make an interpretation of what really happened in the process were gathered, then , it was possible to identify which parts were successful and unsuccessful, and to interpret “why” these successes and failures occurred. Thus, after the identification of key variables and leverage points, a causal diagram and a schematic simulation of the behaviour of reference in case Souselas was designed. We conclude that the process of Souselas was a significant milestone with regard to social organization and spontaneous local actors in situations of opposition to central government decisions with local impact. It was also a turning point in governance according to the model of representative democracy, whose technocratic and elitist character is called into question. The Souselas case emphasized itself as a microcosm on the conflict of interests that we find at a global level heightened since the 90s and that

Maia, MJ.  2016.  Technology and the creative disruption of health care. Technikfolgenabschätzung - Theorie und Praxis. 25(2):79-84.
Maia, MJ, Moniz AB.  2011.  {Competências para a Tomada de Decisão na Radiologia: Uma abordagem de Avaliação de Tecnologia [Competences for decision taking in Radiology: A Technology Assessment approach]}. , Number 02/2011: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

We are facing an era, where pressures on health costs are extremely high, and the reforms in health system are almost constant. But over time, one factor remains unchanged – Technology continues being the sustenance of health care. Manufacturers, clinicians, patients, diagnostic and therapeutic technicians, hospital managers, government leaders, among others, either in public or private sector, are increasingly demanding in the sustained seek for information that support its decisions. Those decisions are about different types of issues: if, or how the technology can be developed, whether a technology should or should not enter the market, whether to acquire and use certain technology, and so forth. Such demand is well implied in the growth and development of Health Technology Assessment (HTA). This specialised field is commonly understood according to the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA, 2003) as an multidisciplinary analysis and decisional field, which studies the implications of clinical, social, ethical and economic development, dissemination and use of health technologies, without neglecting its political analysis (Goodman, 2004). The political decisions made based on HTA reports should be based on scientific evidence, linking efforts between the technical, economic and political dimensions, resourcing to a participatory vision, so that we can translate the best possible decision (Novaes 2006). On the other hand, the success of these decisions depends critically on the skills of the researcher to convey wisdom and confidence in applying rules of argumentation (Grunwald, 2007). In this paper we analyse the technical and methodological aspects of HTA, seen as a tool for evaluating health procedures and techniques. And we analyse the needs for skills and qualifications development of the actors involved in this process.

Maia, MJ.  2013.  {Equity in access to MRI equipment: the Portuguese case}, Feb. , Number 02/2013: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a method of image diagnose proven to be of undeniable importance when it comes to neuro and cardio related diseases. In fact, these diseases (such as: ischemic heart disease, stroke and acute myocardial infection) have high incidence in Portugal. For these reasons, the allocation of this medical technology should not be considered with light thoughts. In fact, making decision of resource allocation in health care can be a very complex and contested matter. The impacts of new technology allocation, such MRI, can be assessed in a variety of ways. However, a fundamental component should always be present: the use of evidence-based decision-making methods. One of these methods is Technology Assessment (TA). This paper aims to characterize the equity on access of the Portuguese population in general, to a specific medical device such as MRI, under the TA point of view. It is hoped to promote a bridge of scientific knowledge between the gap on research and policy-making through TA that can emerge as a tool to aid decision-makers in the organization of health systems. There are gaps in providing healthcare, due to geographical imbalances, with some areas unable to provide certain specialized services, as hospitals in the countryside do not provide all medical specialties. Portugal has also a large independent private sector that provides diagnostic and therapeutic services to NHS users under contracts called conventions. These medical contracts cover ambulatory health facilities for laboratory tests and examinations such as diagnostic tests and Radiology. However, there is no convention from the NHS when concerning the MRI exam. Therefore, this reality can be considered a limitation in the access of the general population to this kind of clinical exam. TA can play an useful and important role in helping the decision-makers to explore potential gains that might be achieved by introducing a more rational decision making into health care ma

Maia, MJ.  2012.  {Technology governance in radiology: the example of magnetic resonance imaging}, Feb. , Number 02/2012: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

WThis report aims to be the gathering of the main ideas that culminated in the presentation at the 1st Winter School of the PhD Programme on Technology Assessment (FCT-UNL) in December 2010. It is a guideline for future work development regarding Technology Assessment in Radiology, particularly having Magnetic Resonance Imaging, as an example. Therefore, as a background, it is necessary to understand what is “Technology Assessment”, how it developed and what it Europe’s interest in this area. Doing a transposition of this subject to health area, it is also important to understand the particularities of Health Technology Assessment. Portugal framework on this subject will also be addressed. As so, the Portuguese National Health System is characterized and the decision-making stakeholders identified, has well as the competences for the decision-making process in general. More generally, the different stakeholders perception involved in decision making, the mapping skills on technology assessment and decision making, the identification of indicators present in this decision making in Radiology, particularly in Magnetic Resonance area, are subjects to be addressed. To accomplish this, a research methodology was outlined, so that six research questions could be answered and five hypotheses could be accepted or refuted, in the future. With this research methodology, the Portuguese state of the art Magnetic Resonance equipment existence will be studied, using a survey as a resource. In the future, a mapping stakeholder technique will be used to identify the decision making key stakeholders and a survey will be applied to map theirs skills and competences in the process, where a pre-test was already applied.

Maia, MJ, Moniz AB.  2011.  {Competências para a Tomada de Decisão na Radiologia: Uma abordagem de Avaliação de Tecnologia [Competences for decision taking in Radiology: A Technology Assessment approach]}, Feb. , Number 02/2011: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

We are facing an era, where pressures on health costs are extremely high, and the reforms in health system are almost constant. But over time, one factor remains unchanged – Technology continues being the sustenance of health care. Manufacturers, clinicians, patients, diagnostic and therapeutic technicians, hospital managers, government leaders, among others, either in public or private sector, are increasingly demanding in the sustained seek for information that support its decisions. Those decisions are about different types of issues: if, or how the technology can be developed, whether a technology should or should not enter the market, whether to acquire and use certain technology, and so forth. Such demand is well implied in the growth and development of Health Technology Assessment (HTA). This specialised field is commonly understood according to the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA, 2003) as an multidisciplinary analysis and decisional field, which studies the implications of clinical, social, ethical and economic development, dissemination and use of health technologies, without neglecting its political analysis (Goodman, 2004). The political decisions made based on HTA reports should be based on scientific evidence, linking efforts between the technical, economic and political dimensions, resourcing to a participatory vision, so that we can translate the best possible decision (Novaes 2006). On the other hand, the success of these decisions depends critically on the skills of the researcher to convey wisdom and confidence in applying rules of argumentation (Grunwald, 2007). In this paper we analyse the technical and methodological aspects of HTA, seen as a tool for evaluating health procedures and techniques. And we analyse the needs for skills and qualifications development of the actors involved in this process.

Maia, MJ.  2011.  {Decision-making process in radiology: the magnetic resonance example in the TA context}, November. Enterprise and Work Innovation Studies. 7:75-101., Number 7 AbstractWebsite

In order to understand the decision-making process in a Radiology Department, taking the Magnetic Resonance Equipment as an example, this paper reports a project to be followed. It is a guideline for future work development regarding Technology Assessment in Radiology. The Theoretical Framework is divided is three big issues. The first is “Technology Assessment”. Starting with the definition of some important concepts, the history and development of Technology Assessment will be addressed. The aim of this issue is to give a general main idea concerning TA contextualization. Doing a transposition of this subject to health area, it is also important to understand the particularities of Health Technology Assessment, second issue. Portugal framework on this subject will also be addressed. As so, the Portuguese National Health System is characterized and the decision-making stakeholders identified, has well as the competences for the decision-making process in general. The third issue is Decision-Making and its aim is to give a general elucidation on decision-making matters. To accomplish this, a research methodology was outlined, so that six research questions could be answered and five hypotheses could be accepted or refuted, in the future. With this research methodology, the Portuguese state of the art Magnetic Resonance equipment existence will be studied, using a survey as a resource. In the future, a mapping stakeholder technique will be used to identify the decision making key stakeholders and a survey will be applied to map theirs skills and competences in the process, where a pre-test was already applied. The results of this pre-test are presented.

Maia, MJ.  2011.  {Innovation scoring no sector de serviços de saúde: um estudo de caso [Innovation scoring in the sector health services: a case study]}. , Number 08/2011: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

Nowadays, innovation has been understood as an overall strategy for a company. Thus, it should remain adapted, flexible and responsive to the market changes, where the company operates. For a company to succeed in the innovation process, it should be clear about their position on this issue. There are several dynamic systems of control and management innovation. One of these systems is the Innovation Scoring, developed by COTEC Portugal, a Corporate Association for Innovation supported by the Portuguese government. The Innovation Scoring is a support tool to encourage national companies to develop innovation in a more systematic, efficient and effective way, contributing to the strategic thinking of the company, about their innovation processes. It allows a more indepth knowledge about the different dimensions that sustain innovation processes. It allows also the identification of areas with potential improvement. In order to analyse and diagnose the innovative capabilities of a real organization, have applied the Innovation Scoring survey. One of the Central Hospital in the Greater Lisbon area (Public Business Entity), and more specifically, its Imaging Department was the case studied. Innovation Scoring System is a self-diagnosis survey and therefore self-fulfilled. However, to make the results more reliable and free from bias, it was decided to adapt the application method. Thus, interviews were conducted and the responses were used to complete the questionnaire later on. In the next step, we proceed to result analysis from the point of view of the innovation at the case studied. As a final result, the Hospital Imaging Department received a weighting of 224 in 1000, for the Innovation Index, which means that the Department has much to develop and work, regarding these issues. The results should serve as a basis of motivation and strategic thinking for the Imaging Department, in relation to their innovation processes. This working paper is structured into seven ch

Maia, MJ, Krings B-J.  2015.  Robots in surgery: Transformation of work in the operation room. Practices of innovation and responsibility: Insights from methods, governance and action. :111-128., Berlin: AKA
Maia, MJ, Moniz AB.  2011.  Competências para a Tomada de Decisão na Radiologia: Uma abordagem de Avalia{\c c}ão de Tecnologia [Competences for decision taking in Radiology: A Technology Assessment approach], Feb. , Number 02/2011: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET-Research on Enterprise and Work Innovation, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

We are facing an era, where pressures on health costs are extremely high, and the reforms in health system are almost constant. But over time, one factor remains unchanged – Technology continues being the sustenance of health care. Manufacturers, clinicians, patients, diagnostic and therapeutic technicians, hospital managers, government leaders, among others, either in public or private sector, are increasingly demanding in the sustained seek for information that support its decisions. Those decisions are about different types of issues: if, or how the technology can be developed, whether a technology should or should not enter the market, whether to acquire and use certain technology, and so forth. Such demand is well implied in the growth and development of Health Technology Assessment (HTA). This specialised field is commonly understood according to the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA, 2003) as an multidisciplinary analysis and decisional field, which studies the implications of clinical, social, ethical and economic development, dissemination and use of health technologies, without neglecting its political analysis (Goodman, 2004). The political decisions made based on HTA reports should be based on scientific evidence, linking efforts between the technical, economic and political dimensions, resourcing to a participatory vision, so that we can translate the best possible decision (Novaes 2006). On the other hand, the success of these decisions depends critically on the skills of the researcher to convey wisdom and confidence in applying rules of argumentation (Grunwald, 2007). In this paper we analyse the technical and methodological aspects of HTA, seen as a tool for evaluating health procedures and techniques. And we analyse the needs for skills and qualifications development of the actors involved in this process.

Meil, P, Trommel W, Bannink D, Hoogenboom M, Moniz A, Woll T, Makó C, Csizmadia P, Illessy M, Balkmar D, Linardos P.  2006.  Comparative report - WORKS WP5 Policy pillar, May. , Number 67056: ZBW - German National Library of Economics Abstract

This report begins with some general information and analysis of policy and regulation that were the subjects of discussion and exchange in the policy pillar in the first phase of WORKS. The second section is a synthesis of country information on general principles and trends of policy and policy enforcement. This is followed by a summary of sector information for the sectors chosen by the qualitative pillar to be the objects of empirical analysis. The last summarises research questions and dimensions to be guidelines for carrying out case studies and capturing the relevance and effects of policy and institutions at the workplace. –

Meil, P, Trommel W, Bannink D, Hoogenboom M, Moniz A, Woll T, Makó C, Csizmadia P, Illessy M, Balkmar D, Linardos P.  2006.  {Comparative report - WORKS WP5 Policy pillar}, May. , Number 67056: ZBW - German National Library of Economics Abstract

This report begins with some general information and analysis of policy and regulation that were the subjects of discussion and exchange in the policy pillar in the first phase of WORKS. The second section is a synthesis of country information on general principles and trends of policy and policy enforcement. This is followed by a summary of sector information for the sectors chosen by the qualitative pillar to be the objects of empirical analysis. The last summarises research questions and dimensions to be guidelines for carrying out case studies and capturing the relevance and effects of policy and institutions at the workplace.

Meil, P, Trommel W, Bannink D, Hoogenboom M, Moniz A, Woll T, Makó C, Csizmadia P, Illessy M, Balkmar D, Linardos P.  2006.  {Comparative report - WORKS WP5 Policy pillar}. , Number 67056: ZBW - German National Library of Economics Abstract

This report begins with some general information and analysis of policy and regulation that were the subjects of discussion and exchange in the policy pillar in the first phase of WORKS. The second section is a synthesis of country information on general principles and trends of policy and policy enforcement. This is followed by a summary of sector information for the sectors chosen by the qualitative pillar to be the objects of empirical analysis. The last summarises research questions and dimensions to be guidelines for carrying out case studies and capturing the relevance and effects of policy and institutions at the workplace.

Meil, P, Stratigaki M, Linardos P, Tengblad P, Docherty P, Bannink D, Moniz A, Paulos M, Krings B, Nierling L.  2009.  Challenges for Europe under value chain restructuring: Contributions to policy debates. , Number http://ideas.repec.org/p/zbw/esrepo/65844.html Abstract

65844

Meil, P, Stratigaki M, Linardos P, Tengblad P, Docherty P, Bannink D, Moniz A, Paulos M, Krings B, Nierling L.  2009.  {Challenges for Europe under value chain restructuring: Contributions to policy debates}. , Number http://ideas.repec.org/p/zbw/esrepo/65844.html Abstract

65844

Moniz, A.  1993.  {Organização do trabalho e controlo de qualidade numa estação de soldadura robotizada[Work organisation and quality control in a welding robotic cell]}, Nov. , Number 7254: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

In this paper is analyzed the work organization and the forms of quality control in a robotic welding station in a company of office equipment and metal components manufacturing. The robotic cell is recent and works in two shifts. Quality and production rationalization implied in this firms the adoption of a strategy of organization of teamwork, and it is supported the collaborative tools to decrease the possibilities for errors and to improve means and methods of manufacturing. The analysis of quality control process needed the use of productivity indicators. In this way it was possible to understand the connections between the function quality and the new form of work organization adopted in this innovative experience in Portugal.

Moniz, AB.  2012.  Avaliação participativa de tecnologia e sustentabilidade organizacional [Participative technology assessment and organisational sustainability], Apr. , Number 06/2012: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET-Research on Enterprise and Work Innovation, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

Technology Assessment (TA) considers the knowledge on (possible ou probable) technological effects in the processes of decision making and exploring potencial technological risks with secondary effects. Besides that, it is a scientific process with the aim of contributing the public and political opinion formation relative to social aspects of science and technology. That formation is done in an interactive and communicational mode. It overtakes the legitimacy and technology conflicts problems. TA is dealing with a political process either it is related with a parliamentary level decision on the introduction or limitation of new technologies, or at the level of participative processes of entities interested in the labour sphere. In this study, it is concluded that the TA processes at the level of organization of work can aim to fulfill higher levels of productivity and performance of installed equipment, or even to increase the quality of the product or the production process. That does not mean necessarily increases in income of workers and employees. That is why the participation of these actors is also so fundamental to this process.

Moniz, AB.  2010.  {Anthropocentric-based robotic and autonomous systems: assessment for new organisational options}, Jul. , Number 07/2010: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

Research activities at European level on the concept of new working environments offers considerable attention to the challenges of the increased competencies of people working together with automated technologies. Since the decade of 1980 the development of approaches for the humanization of work organization, and for the development of participative organizational options induced to new proposals related to the development of complex and integrated automated systems. From such parallel conceptual development emerged the concept of “anthropocentric robotic systems” and quickly it covered also other fields of automation. More recently, the debate also covers issues related to working perception of people dealing with autonomous systems (e.g. Autonomous robotics) in tasks related to production planning, to programming and to process control. In fact, today one can understand the wider use of the anthropocentrism concept of production architectures, when understanding the new quality of these systems. In this chapter the author analyses the evolution of these issues related to governance of ICT applied to manufacturing and industrial services in research programmes strengthening very much the ‘classical’ concept of anthropocentric-based systems. It is emerging a new value of the intuitive capacities and human knowledge in the optimization and flexibilization of the manufacturing processes. While this would be a pre-condition to understand the human-robot communication needs, there is also a need to take into consideration the qualitative variables in the definition and design of robotic systems, jobs and production systems.

Moniz, AB, Paulos MR.  2008.  The globalisation in the clothing sector and its implications for work organisation: a view from the Portuguese case, Jun. , Number 05/2008: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET-Research on Enterprise and Work Innovation, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

The clothing sector in Portugal is still seen, in many aspects as a traditional sector with some average characteristics, such as: low level of qualifications, less flexible labour legislation and stronger unionisation, very low salaries and low capability of investment in innovation and new technology. Is, nevertheless, a very important sector in terms of labour market, with increased weight in the exporting structure. Globalisation and delocalisation are having a strong impact in the organisation of work and in occupational careers in the sector. With the pressure of global competitiveness in what concerns time and prices, very few companies are able to keep a position in the market without changes in organisation of work and workers. And those that can perform good responses to such challenges are achieving a better economical stability. The companies have found different ways to face this reality according to size, capital and position. We could find two main paths: one where companies outsource a part or the entire production to another territory (for example, several manufacturing tasks), close and/or dismissal the workers. Other path, where companies up skilled their capacities investing, for example, in design, workers training, conception and introduction of new or original products. This paper will present some results from the European project WORKS – Work organisation and restructuring in the knowledge society (6th Framework Programme), focusing the Portuguese case studies in several clothing companies in what concern implications of global context for the companies in general and for the workers in particular, in a comparative analysis with some other European countries.

Moniz, AB.  2008.  {Assessing scenarios on the future of work}, November. Enterprise and Work Innovation Studies. 4:91-106., Number 4 AbstractWebsite

In this paper will be discussed different types of scenarios and the aims for using scenarios. Normaly they are being used by organisations due to the need to anticipate processes, to support policy-making and to understand the complexities of relations. Such organisations can be private companies, R&D organisations and networks of organisations, or even by some public administration institutions. Some cases will be discussed as the methods for ongoing scenario-building process (Shell Internacional). Scenarios should anticipate possible relations among social actors as in the Triple Helix Model, and is possible to develop strategic intelligence in the innovation process that would enable the construction of scenarios. Such processes can be assessed. The focus will be made in relation to the steps chosen for the WORKS scenarios. In this case is there a model of work changes that can be used for foresight? Differences according to sectors were found, as well on other dimensions. Problems of assessment are analysed with specific application to the scenario construction methods.

Moniz, A, Casaca S, Bairrada M, c}ão Moreno C{\c.  2000.  I&D, inova{\c c}ão e fomento de emprego: ideias chave de uma rela{\c c}ão[R&D, innovation and job creation: key-ideas of a relation], Sep. , Number 9667: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

The increasing degree of inter-dependency and integration of economy at a global scale motivated the globalization of scientific and technological knowledge from manufacturing, to the marketing and the strategic management of companies that act as protagonists of these processes. Globalization of markets is inter-connected with intensive incorporation of knowledge in economy. In this sense the continuous evolution of the manufacturing industry structure for an increased high intensity technology elements, namely information and communication technologies, implies that these industrial sub-sectors are conditioning the global performance of economy, the productivity gains and as a consequence the levels of economical and employment growth. This study on “R&D, Innovation and Employment Creation” for the Portuguese Observatory of Employment and Vocational Training (IEFP-MQE) is updating information on the articulation between Job creation, innovation, technology, and R&D. A diagnosis of the state of national S&T research and of processes of technological and organizational innovation was made, as well of the interfacing structures between the knowledge sector and the economical activities. Were made 12 case studies at companies with some innovation activities, interviews to unionists and to Professional associations, and public offices. Was made also a survey to a selected sample of technological infrastructures.