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Moniz, AB, Paulos M.  2008.  Futures of automobile industry and challenges on sustainable development and mobility, May. , Number hal-00287886: HAL Abstract

Portugal had only very few foresight exercises on the automobile sector, and the most recent one was a survey held in a project on work organisation systems in the automobile industry, its recent historical paths and the special strategies of location of companies (the WorTiS project). This involved several teams with different disciplinary backgrounds and from two Portuguese universities. The provisional main results of the first round of a Delphi survey held in Portugal on the automotive sector were already published, but a further analysis was not yet done. This foresight survey was done under the WorTiS project, developed in 2004 by IET – Research Centre on Enterprise and Work Innovation (at FCT-UNL), and financed by the Portuguese Ministry of Science and Technology. Some of this experience on foresight analysis is also been transferred to other projects, namely the WORKS project on work organisation restructuring in the knowledge society that received the support from EC and still is running. The majority of experts considered having an average of less knowledge in almost all the scenario topics presented. This means that information on the automotive industry is not spread enough among academics or experts in related fields (regional scientists, innovation economists, engineers, sociologists). Some have a good knowledge but in very specialised fields. Others have expertise on foresight, or macroeconomics, or management sciences, but feel insecure on issues related with futures of automobile sector. Nevertheless, we considered specially the topics where the experts considered themselves to have some knowledge. There were no “irrelevant” topics considered as such by the expert panel. There are also no topics that are not considered a need for co-operation. The lack of technological infrastructures was not considered as a hindered factor for the accomplishment of any scenario. The experts’ panel considered no other international competence besides US, Japan

Moniz, A, Cabeças JM.  2008.  {Editorial Note}, November. Enterprise and Work Innovation Studies. 4:7-8., Number 4 AbstractWebsite

No abstract is available for this item.

Moniz, AB, Woll T.  2006.  International Conference on “Foresight Studies on Work in the Knowledge Society“ in Monte de Caparica (FCT-UNL) on 19-20 October 2006, November. Enterprise and Work Innovation Studies. 2:153-154., Number 2 AbstractWebsite

On 19 and 20 October 2006, the Research Centre on Enterprise and Work Organisation (IET) organised the first international conference on “Foresight Studies on Work in the Knowledge Society”. It took place at the auditorium of the new Library of FCT-UNL and had the support of the research project “CodeWork@VO” (financed by FCT-MCTES and co-ordinated by INESC, Porto). The conference related to the European research project “Work Organisation and Restructuring in the Knowledge Society” (WORKS), which is financed by the European Commission. The main objective of the conference was to analyse and discuss research findings on the trends of work structures in the knowledge society, and to debate on new work organisation models and new forms of work supported by ICT.

Moniz, AB, Woll T.  2006.  {International Conference on “Foresight Studies on Work in the Knowledge Society“ in Monte de Caparica (FCT-UNL) on 19-20 October 2006}, November. Enterprise and Work Innovation Studies. 2:153-154., Number 2 AbstractWebsite

On 19 and 20 October 2006, the Research Centre on Enterprise and Work Organisation (IET) organised the first international conference on “Foresight Studies on Work in the Knowledge Society”. It took place at the auditorium of the new Library of FCT-UNL and had the support of the research project “CodeWork@VO” (financed by FCT-MCTES and co-ordinated by INESC, Porto). The conference related to the European research project “Work Organisation and Restructuring in the Knowledge Society” (WORKS), which is financed by the European Commission. The main objective of the conference was to analyse and discuss research findings on the trends of work structures in the knowledge society, and to debate on new work organisation models and new forms of work supported by ICT.

Moniz, A.  2001.  A coopera{\c c}ão entre equipas de trabalho em empresas em rede: vantagens para o desenvolvimento regional[Workteam Co-operation in Networked Companies: regional development advantages], Sep. , Number 37580: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

Working teams in enterprise environment are considered as the most advanced forms of work organisation. This means the forms that can improve productivity quality of working life. Nevertheless, it prevail a slow development and dissemination of these advanced organisational forms in European companies. The reason for that lays in a complex linkage factors from social values to the economical pressures. But other factors are also related to the national systems of education training, to the different systems of industrial relations and technology policy.

Moniz, A.  1993.  Concep{\c c}ão de postos de trabalho em novos sistemas produtivos: o exemplo da robÓtica industrial[Job design in new productive systems: the exemple of industrial robotics]. , Number 7191: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

The design of jobs is defined and its different implications. These aspects must be taken into consideration when applied to new automated systems, once it can occur workers in-adaptations to certain type of activity and tasks. Other concepts that emerge from this are the mental workload, stress, work accidents, shift work, or the physical environment that can reveal to become determinant in the process of job design. That means also the organizational design. In this sense, the manufacturing, organizational and individual dimensions, are the most meaningful in the mentioned process of organizational design. Are analyzed different application cases of robotized systems and their social effects, mostly those that are related to the dimensions of working conditions. Are particularly analyzed the new risk situations that occur with the use of robotic systems. One concludes on the need to take into consideration qualitative variables in the definition and design of robotic cells, jobs and production systems. This consideration influences directly in the labor productivity, in such way that the development of these methodologies of analysis can be considered as integrating the processes of technological innovation in manufacturing.

Moniz, A, Silva A, Woll T, Samapaio J.  2006.  {Procesos de globalización de las cadenas de valor en la industria de vestuario en Portugal: implicación en las estructuras de trabajo}, Nov. , Number 5629: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

Algunos de los fenómenos donde el concepto de “globalización” es aplicado incluyen la internacionalización de los mercados, la globalización de la cultura, el dominio político hegemónico del mundo por algunos estados poderosos, o grupos de estados, el poder creciente de organismos supranacionales, y el desarrollo de una división global de trabajo. De acuerdo con Radice, la globalización é generalmente definida como “un proceso a través de lo cual una proporción creciente de transacciones económicas, sociales e culturales ocurre directamente o indirectamente entre partners de países distintos” (Radice, 2004: 154). Un ponto de partida para entender la división global del trabajo debe ser la investigación de los modos como las empresas se reestructuran, una vez que son los actores-llave en la decisión sobre que trabajo debe ser encontrado y donde. Las “cadenas de valor” descriven cada etapa en el proceso productivo de un producto o un servicio final. La palabra “valor” en la frase “cadena de valor” dice respecto al valor añadido. Cada etapa en la cadena de valor implica recibir inputs, procesarlos, y entonces pasarlos a la unidad siguiente en la cadena, con el valor que está sendo adicionado no proceso. As unidades separadas da cadena de valor pueden estar dentro da misma empresa (in-house) o en distintas empresas (outsourced). Similarmente pueden estar en un mismo local, o en otra localización. La normalización de muchos procesos del negocio, combinada con la digitalización da información y el desarrollo de redes de telecomunicaciones de elevada capacidad ha tornado posible el trabajo tele-mediado, pudiendo este ser externalizado y/o re-localizado, conduciendo à introducción de una división de trabajo internacional no trabajo de procesamiento de información. Esta comunicación presentará algunos resultados derivados do proyecto europeo WORKS, donde son estudiados casos portugueses de empresas que justamente se integran en cadenas de valor globalizadas, sendo analizadas

Meil, P, Stratigaki M, Linardos P, Tengblad P, Docherty P, Bannink D, Moniz A, Paulos M, Krings B, Nierling L.  2009.  {Challenges for Europe under value chain restructuring: Contributions to policy debates}. , Number http://ideas.repec.org/p/zbw/esrepo/65844.html Abstract

65844

Meil, P, Trommel W, Bannink D, Hoogenboom M, Moniz A, Woll T, Makó C, Csizmadia P, Illessy M, Balkmar D, Linardos P.  2006.  Comparative report - WORKS WP5 Policy pillar, May. , Number 67056: ZBW - German National Library of Economics Abstract

This report begins with some general information and analysis of policy and regulation that were the subjects of discussion and exchange in the policy pillar in the first phase of WORKS. The second section is a synthesis of country information on general principles and trends of policy and policy enforcement. This is followed by a summary of sector information for the sectors chosen by the qualitative pillar to be the objects of empirical analysis. The last summarises research questions and dimensions to be guidelines for carrying out case studies and capturing the relevance and effects of policy and institutions at the workplace. –

Meil, P, Trommel W, Bannink D, Hoogenboom M, Moniz A, Woll T, Makó C, Csizmadia P, Illessy M, Balkmar D, Linardos P.  2006.  {Comparative report - WORKS WP5 Policy pillar}, May. , Number 67056: ZBW - German National Library of Economics Abstract

This report begins with some general information and analysis of policy and regulation that were the subjects of discussion and exchange in the policy pillar in the first phase of WORKS. The second section is a synthesis of country information on general principles and trends of policy and policy enforcement. This is followed by a summary of sector information for the sectors chosen by the qualitative pillar to be the objects of empirical analysis. The last summarises research questions and dimensions to be guidelines for carrying out case studies and capturing the relevance and effects of policy and institutions at the workplace.

Meil, P, Trommel W, Bannink D, Hoogenboom M, Moniz A, Woll T, Makó C, Csizmadia P, Illessy M, Balkmar D, Linardos P.  2006.  {Comparative report - WORKS WP5 Policy pillar}. , Number 67056: ZBW - German National Library of Economics Abstract

This report begins with some general information and analysis of policy and regulation that were the subjects of discussion and exchange in the policy pillar in the first phase of WORKS. The second section is a synthesis of country information on general principles and trends of policy and policy enforcement. This is followed by a summary of sector information for the sectors chosen by the qualitative pillar to be the objects of empirical analysis. The last summarises research questions and dimensions to be guidelines for carrying out case studies and capturing the relevance and effects of policy and institutions at the workplace.

Meil, P, Stratigaki M, Linardos P, Tengblad P, Docherty P, Bannink D, Moniz A, Paulos M, Krings B, Nierling L.  2009.  Challenges for Europe under value chain restructuring: Contributions to policy debates. , Number http://ideas.repec.org/p/zbw/esrepo/65844.html Abstract

65844

Maia, MJ.  2011.  {Decision-making process in radiology: the magnetic resonance example in the TA context}, November. Enterprise and Work Innovation Studies. 7:75-101., Number 7 AbstractWebsite

In order to understand the decision-making process in a Radiology Department, taking the Magnetic Resonance Equipment as an example, this paper reports a project to be followed. It is a guideline for future work development regarding Technology Assessment in Radiology. The Theoretical Framework is divided is three big issues. The first is “Technology Assessment”. Starting with the definition of some important concepts, the history and development of Technology Assessment will be addressed. The aim of this issue is to give a general main idea concerning TA contextualization. Doing a transposition of this subject to health area, it is also important to understand the particularities of Health Technology Assessment, second issue. Portugal framework on this subject will also be addressed. As so, the Portuguese National Health System is characterized and the decision-making stakeholders identified, has well as the competences for the decision-making process in general. The third issue is Decision-Making and its aim is to give a general elucidation on decision-making matters. To accomplish this, a research methodology was outlined, so that six research questions could be answered and five hypotheses could be accepted or refuted, in the future. With this research methodology, the Portuguese state of the art Magnetic Resonance equipment existence will be studied, using a survey as a resource. In the future, a mapping stakeholder technique will be used to identify the decision making key stakeholders and a survey will be applied to map theirs skills and competences in the process, where a pre-test was already applied. The results of this pre-test are presented.

Maia, MJ.  2011.  {Innovation scoring no sector de serviços de saúde: um estudo de caso [Innovation scoring in the sector health services: a case study]}. , Number 08/2011: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

Nowadays, innovation has been understood as an overall strategy for a company. Thus, it should remain adapted, flexible and responsive to the market changes, where the company operates. For a company to succeed in the innovation process, it should be clear about their position on this issue. There are several dynamic systems of control and management innovation. One of these systems is the Innovation Scoring, developed by COTEC Portugal, a Corporate Association for Innovation supported by the Portuguese government. The Innovation Scoring is a support tool to encourage national companies to develop innovation in a more systematic, efficient and effective way, contributing to the strategic thinking of the company, about their innovation processes. It allows a more indepth knowledge about the different dimensions that sustain innovation processes. It allows also the identification of areas with potential improvement. In order to analyse and diagnose the innovative capabilities of a real organization, have applied the Innovation Scoring survey. One of the Central Hospital in the Greater Lisbon area (Public Business Entity), and more specifically, its Imaging Department was the case studied. Innovation Scoring System is a self-diagnosis survey and therefore self-fulfilled. However, to make the results more reliable and free from bias, it was decided to adapt the application method. Thus, interviews were conducted and the responses were used to complete the questionnaire later on. In the next step, we proceed to result analysis from the point of view of the innovation at the case studied. As a final result, the Hospital Imaging Department received a weighting of 224 in 1000, for the Innovation Index, which means that the Department has much to develop and work, regarding these issues. The results should serve as a basis of motivation and strategic thinking for the Imaging Department, in relation to their innovation processes. This working paper is structured into seven ch

Maia, MJ, Krings B-J.  2015.  Robots in surgery: Transformation of work in the operation room. Practices of innovation and responsibility: Insights from methods, governance and action. :111-128., Berlin: AKA
Maia, MJ, Moniz AB.  2011.  Competências para a Tomada de Decisão na Radiologia: Uma abordagem de Avalia{\c c}ão de Tecnologia [Competences for decision taking in Radiology: A Technology Assessment approach], Feb. , Number 02/2011: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET-Research on Enterprise and Work Innovation, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

We are facing an era, where pressures on health costs are extremely high, and the reforms in health system are almost constant. But over time, one factor remains unchanged – Technology continues being the sustenance of health care. Manufacturers, clinicians, patients, diagnostic and therapeutic technicians, hospital managers, government leaders, among others, either in public or private sector, are increasingly demanding in the sustained seek for information that support its decisions. Those decisions are about different types of issues: if, or how the technology can be developed, whether a technology should or should not enter the market, whether to acquire and use certain technology, and so forth. Such demand is well implied in the growth and development of Health Technology Assessment (HTA). This specialised field is commonly understood according to the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA, 2003) as an multidisciplinary analysis and decisional field, which studies the implications of clinical, social, ethical and economic development, dissemination and use of health technologies, without neglecting its political analysis (Goodman, 2004). The political decisions made based on HTA reports should be based on scientific evidence, linking efforts between the technical, economic and political dimensions, resourcing to a participatory vision, so that we can translate the best possible decision (Novaes 2006). On the other hand, the success of these decisions depends critically on the skills of the researcher to convey wisdom and confidence in applying rules of argumentation (Grunwald, 2007). In this paper we analyse the technical and methodological aspects of HTA, seen as a tool for evaluating health procedures and techniques. And we analyse the needs for skills and qualifications development of the actors involved in this process.

Maia, MJ, Moiteiro AI, Horstink L, Farelo M, Antunes R.  2012.  {Análise de um processo decisório controverso: a co-incineração em Souselas [Analysis of a controversial decision process: the co-incineration at Souselas]}. , Number 10/2012: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

The scientific controversy generated around the destiny given to the fraction of hazardous industrial waste produced in Portugal and how the country dealt with this situation was the stand out point in Souselas case. Here, the dominant aspect of the analysis focused on the implementation of a solution for the treatment of hazardous industrial waste. These wastes result from industrial processes contain or are contaminated, by substances that, at certain concentrations, represent a risk to human health or to the environment. Their treatment can be done using co-incineration in existing cement factories. Having in mind the environment analysis of a controversial process, through the statements made by the different actors involved, the case of Souselas was our object of study. Initially, the actors involved in the process were identified and characterized, in terms of position, interests and / or concerns. This analysis has strengthened with the gathering of documentary elements of analysis. In a second phase the historical process was prepared. Only then, the conditions to make an interpretation of what really happened in the process were gathered, then , it was possible to identify which parts were successful and unsuccessful, and to interpret “why” these successes and failures occurred. Thus, after the identification of key variables and leverage points, a causal diagram and a schematic simulation of the behaviour of reference in case Souselas was designed. We conclude that the process of Souselas was a significant milestone with regard to social organization and spontaneous local actors in situations of opposition to central government decisions with local impact. It was also a turning point in governance according to the model of representative democracy, whose technocratic and elitist character is called into question. The Souselas case emphasized itself as a microcosm on the conflict of interests that we find at a global level heightened since the 90s and that

Maia, MJ.  2016.  Technology and the creative disruption of health care. Technikfolgenabschätzung - Theorie und Praxis. 25(2):79-84.
Maia, MJ, Moniz AB.  2011.  {Competências para a Tomada de Decisão na Radiologia: Uma abordagem de Avaliação de Tecnologia [Competences for decision taking in Radiology: A Technology Assessment approach]}. , Number 02/2011: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

We are facing an era, where pressures on health costs are extremely high, and the reforms in health system are almost constant. But over time, one factor remains unchanged – Technology continues being the sustenance of health care. Manufacturers, clinicians, patients, diagnostic and therapeutic technicians, hospital managers, government leaders, among others, either in public or private sector, are increasingly demanding in the sustained seek for information that support its decisions. Those decisions are about different types of issues: if, or how the technology can be developed, whether a technology should or should not enter the market, whether to acquire and use certain technology, and so forth. Such demand is well implied in the growth and development of Health Technology Assessment (HTA). This specialised field is commonly understood according to the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA, 2003) as an multidisciplinary analysis and decisional field, which studies the implications of clinical, social, ethical and economic development, dissemination and use of health technologies, without neglecting its political analysis (Goodman, 2004). The political decisions made based on HTA reports should be based on scientific evidence, linking efforts between the technical, economic and political dimensions, resourcing to a participatory vision, so that we can translate the best possible decision (Novaes 2006). On the other hand, the success of these decisions depends critically on the skills of the researcher to convey wisdom and confidence in applying rules of argumentation (Grunwald, 2007). In this paper we analyse the technical and methodological aspects of HTA, seen as a tool for evaluating health procedures and techniques. And we analyse the needs for skills and qualifications development of the actors involved in this process.

Maia, MJ.  2013.  {Equity in access to MRI equipment: the Portuguese case}, Feb. , Number 02/2013: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a method of image diagnose proven to be of undeniable importance when it comes to neuro and cardio related diseases. In fact, these diseases (such as: ischemic heart disease, stroke and acute myocardial infection) have high incidence in Portugal. For these reasons, the allocation of this medical technology should not be considered with light thoughts. In fact, making decision of resource allocation in health care can be a very complex and contested matter. The impacts of new technology allocation, such MRI, can be assessed in a variety of ways. However, a fundamental component should always be present: the use of evidence-based decision-making methods. One of these methods is Technology Assessment (TA). This paper aims to characterize the equity on access of the Portuguese population in general, to a specific medical device such as MRI, under the TA point of view. It is hoped to promote a bridge of scientific knowledge between the gap on research and policy-making through TA that can emerge as a tool to aid decision-makers in the organization of health systems. There are gaps in providing healthcare, due to geographical imbalances, with some areas unable to provide certain specialized services, as hospitals in the countryside do not provide all medical specialties. Portugal has also a large independent private sector that provides diagnostic and therapeutic services to NHS users under contracts called conventions. These medical contracts cover ambulatory health facilities for laboratory tests and examinations such as diagnostic tests and Radiology. However, there is no convention from the NHS when concerning the MRI exam. Therefore, this reality can be considered a limitation in the access of the general population to this kind of clinical exam. TA can play an useful and important role in helping the decision-makers to explore potential gains that might be achieved by introducing a more rational decision making into health care ma

Maia, MJ.  2012.  {Technology governance in radiology: the example of magnetic resonance imaging}, Feb. , Number 02/2012: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

WThis report aims to be the gathering of the main ideas that culminated in the presentation at the 1st Winter School of the PhD Programme on Technology Assessment (FCT-UNL) in December 2010. It is a guideline for future work development regarding Technology Assessment in Radiology, particularly having Magnetic Resonance Imaging, as an example. Therefore, as a background, it is necessary to understand what is “Technology Assessment”, how it developed and what it Europe’s interest in this area. Doing a transposition of this subject to health area, it is also important to understand the particularities of Health Technology Assessment. Portugal framework on this subject will also be addressed. As so, the Portuguese National Health System is characterized and the decision-making stakeholders identified, has well as the competences for the decision-making process in general. More generally, the different stakeholders perception involved in decision making, the mapping skills on technology assessment and decision making, the identification of indicators present in this decision making in Radiology, particularly in Magnetic Resonance area, are subjects to be addressed. To accomplish this, a research methodology was outlined, so that six research questions could be answered and five hypotheses could be accepted or refuted, in the future. With this research methodology, the Portuguese state of the art Magnetic Resonance equipment existence will be studied, using a survey as a resource. In the future, a mapping stakeholder technique will be used to identify the decision making key stakeholders and a survey will be applied to map theirs skills and competences in the process, where a pre-test was already applied.

Maia, MJ, Moniz AB.  2011.  {Competências para a Tomada de Decisão na Radiologia: Uma abordagem de Avaliação de Tecnologia [Competences for decision taking in Radiology: A Technology Assessment approach]}, Feb. , Number 02/2011: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

We are facing an era, where pressures on health costs are extremely high, and the reforms in health system are almost constant. But over time, one factor remains unchanged – Technology continues being the sustenance of health care. Manufacturers, clinicians, patients, diagnostic and therapeutic technicians, hospital managers, government leaders, among others, either in public or private sector, are increasingly demanding in the sustained seek for information that support its decisions. Those decisions are about different types of issues: if, or how the technology can be developed, whether a technology should or should not enter the market, whether to acquire and use certain technology, and so forth. Such demand is well implied in the growth and development of Health Technology Assessment (HTA). This specialised field is commonly understood according to the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA, 2003) as an multidisciplinary analysis and decisional field, which studies the implications of clinical, social, ethical and economic development, dissemination and use of health technologies, without neglecting its political analysis (Goodman, 2004). The political decisions made based on HTA reports should be based on scientific evidence, linking efforts between the technical, economic and political dimensions, resourcing to a participatory vision, so that we can translate the best possible decision (Novaes 2006). On the other hand, the success of these decisions depends critically on the skills of the researcher to convey wisdom and confidence in applying rules of argumentation (Grunwald, 2007). In this paper we analyse the technical and methodological aspects of HTA, seen as a tool for evaluating health procedures and techniques. And we analyse the needs for skills and qualifications development of the actors involved in this process.

Machado, T, Moniz A.  2003.  Assembling Toyota in Portugal, Jun. , Number 5881: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

A lot has been written over the last decade with regard to Toyota and the productive model associated to it (toyota-ism). And more specifically concerning the "(…) best-seller that changed the... sociological world" (Castillo, 1998: 31). But the case of Salvador Caetano’s Ovar Industrial Division (OID), that assembles Toyota light commercial vehicles in Portugal, allows us to put forward a sub-hypothesis that fits into the analysis schema proposed in the First GERPISA International Program – "In short, GERPISA members considered that the plurality of models was much a plausible hypothesis deserving testing as that of the diffusion of a unique model (…)" (Boyer, Freyssenet, 2001: 42). So we add: and within Toyota itself, is it not true that different productive models co-exist – especially when delocalised – depending, amongst other factors, on the degree of Toyota participation – in terms of capital and technology transfer – in the local company (strong or weak) and on the markets to be reached (internal or external)? If so, what work system can we expect to find in a plant that presents such peculiar characteristics as this one?

Machado, T, Moniz A.  2005.  {Models and Practices in the Motor Vehicle Industry – contrasting cases from the Portuguese experience}, Jun. , Number 6171: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

This paper presents and discusses two case studies in the Portuguese motor vehicle industry – Salvador Caetano’s Ovar Industrial Division (SCOID), a ‘Brownfield site’ with minority Toyota ownership; and Autoeuropa, a ‘Greenfield site’ wholly owned by Volkswagen. Basically, it considers the scope for the meaningful application of ‘Japanese’ organisational methods in these contexts, focusing on the human factor – i.e. as close as possible to the actors on the shop floor. After providing some insights into the Portuguese automotive industry, it profiles both SCOID and Autoeuropa and assesses each of their methods of work, within this balance of commitment between global and local. The main findings reveal the lag that can exist between theoretical models (namely those following a geographical criteria) and the actual practice carried out by manufacturers when tested outside their point of geographical origin.

Machado, T, Moniz A.  2003.  {Assembling Toyota in Portugal}, Jun. , Number 5881: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

A lot has been written over the last decade with regard to Toyota and the productive model associated to it (toyota-ism). And more specifically concerning the "(…) best-seller that changed the... sociological world" (Castillo, 1998: 31). But the case of Salvador Caetano’s Ovar Industrial Division (OID), that assembles Toyota light commercial vehicles in Portugal, allows us to put forward a sub-hypothesis that fits into the analysis schema proposed in the First GERPISA International Program – "In short, GERPISA members considered that the plurality of models was much a plausible hypothesis deserving testing as that of the diffusion of a unique model (…)" (Boyer, Freyssenet, 2001: 42). So we add: and within Toyota itself, is it not true that different productive models co-exist – especially when delocalised – depending, amongst other factors, on the degree of Toyota participation – in terms of capital and technology transfer – in the local company (strong or weak) and on the markets to be reached (internal or external)? If so, what work system can we expect to find in a plant that presents such peculiar characteristics as this one?