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Journal Article
Fournier, G, Hinderer H, Schmid D, Seign R, Baumann M.  2012.  {The new mobility paradigm: Transformation of value chain and business models}, November. Enterprise and Work Innovation Studies. 8:9-40., Number 8 AbstractWebsite

Four categories of innovations have been identified by Freeman and Perez: incremental innovations, radical innovations, new technological systems (systemic innovations), and technological revolutions or new techno-economic paradigms. New techno-economic paradigms represent changes in technological systems that are so far-reaching in their effects that they have a major influence on the behaviour of the entire economy. Scarcity of oil and external costs like global warming are the key arguments and the main drivers of the change of the current paradigm. They will affect especially the mobility of individuals and the interlinked business models. Novel business models within newly created markets will raise e.g. extended mobility services, activities aiming at the infrastructure, new opportunities in the field of energy transmission and supply and even new strategies of recycling, reusing or reducing the use of resources in order to address global scarcity issues. Especially for the established players of the automotive industry like original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) or 1st and 2nd tier suppliers this implicates opportunities and risks at the same time. But also new players will get the chance to create and enter new markets with new or extended products or services and lead the new value chain. This paper compiles and evaluates current approaches and business models of selected OEMs together with upcoming players. Additionally their positions within the existing value chain are being analyzed and classified. Bringing together the identified drivers of changes with current trends within the automotive industry the authors also show new concepts of extended business models, e.g. the idea of an ecosystem, that have the potential to cause an additional shift of power within the global mobility value chain.

Krings, B-J.  2006.  {The sociological perspective on the knowledge-based society: assumptions, facts and visions}, November. Enterprise and Work Innovation Studies. 2:9-19., Number 2 AbstractWebsite

The paper will present the central discourse of the knowledge-based society. Already in the 1960s the debate of the industrial society already raised the question whether there can be considered a paradigm shift towards a knowledge-based society. Some prominent authors already foreseen ‘knowledge’ as the main indicator in order to displace ‘labour’ and ‘capital’ as the main driving forces of the capitalistic development. Today on the political level and also in many scientific disciplines the assumption that we are already living in a knowledge-based society seems obvious. Although we still do not have a theory of the knowledge-based society and there still exist a methodological gap about the empirical indicators, the vision of a knowledge-based society determines at least the perception of the Western societies. In a first step the author will pinpoint the assumptions about the knowledge-based society on three levels: on the societal, on the organisational and on the individual level. These assumptions are relied on the following topics: a) The role of the information and communication technologies; b) The dynamic development of globalisation as an ‘evolutionary’ process; c) The increasing importance of knowledge management within organisations; d) The changing role of the state within the economic processes. Not only the differentiation between the levels but also the revision of the assumptions of a knowledge-based society will show that the ‘topics raised in the debates’ cannot be considered as the results of a profound societal paradigm shift. However what seems very impressive is the normative and virtual shift towards a concept of modernity, which strongly focuses on the role of technology as a driving force as well as on the global economic markets, which has to be accepted. Therefore – according to the official debate - the successful adaptation of these processes seems the only way to meet the knowledge-based society. Analysing the societal changes on the

Miscellaneous
Moniz, A, Godinho MM.  2001.  A análise prospectiva como ferramenta de pol{\'ıtica de inova{\c c}ão: uma perspectiva socioeconómica[Foresight analysis as an innovation policy tool: a socio-economical approach], Mar. , Number 6412: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

At the last National Conference of Industrial Sociology in Portugal (in March 1999) was presented a paper on the topic of “foresight as a technology and employment policy instrument” (A.B. Moniz) where there was a reference to the need of development of this kind of tools and instruments. This need is clear when one should neutralize the negative effects of such policies, and could support the positive influences, especially with the main aims of improvement of quality of working life. Thus, is today possible to make a first balance of the application in Portugal of a type of foresight analysis exercise: the Delphi method. After some of the uses of this method in Portugal on the fisheries socio-economical system and on the relation between information society and employment, we present in this paper a first assessment of such experiments and present some recommendations for future uses of this foresight technique. We conclude that they must be applied within the context of socio-economical perspectives, and not only the technological ones, although they should include that dimension.

Moniz, AB.  2010.  Anthropocentric-based robotic and autonomous systems: assessment for new organisational options, Jul. , Number 07/2010: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET-Research on Enterprise and Work Innovation, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

Research activities at European level on the concept of new working environments offers considerable attention to the challenges of the increased competencies of people working together with automated technologies. Since the decade of 1980 the development of approaches for the humanization of work organization, and for the development of participative organizational options induced to new proposals related to the development of complex and integrated automated systems. From such parallel conceptual development emerged the concept of “anthropocentric robotic systems” and quickly it covered also other fields of automation. More recently, the debate also covers issues related to working perception of people dealing with autonomous systems (e.g. Autonomous robotics) in tasks related to production planning, to programming and to process control. In fact, today one can understand the wider use of the anthropocentrism concept of production architectures, when understanding the new quality of these systems. In this chapter the author analyses the evolution of these issues related to governance of ICT applied to manufacturing and industrial services in research programmes strengthening very much the ‘classical’ concept of anthropocentric-based systems. It is emerging a new value of the intuitive capacities and human knowledge in the optimization and flexibilization of the manufacturing processes. While this would be a pre-condition to understand the human-robot communication needs, there is also a need to take into consideration the qualitative variables in the definition and design of robotic systems, jobs and production systems.

Paulos, MR, Moniz AB.  2009.  Are societal changes new? Questions or trends and future perceptions on knowledge-based economy, Feb , Number 02/2009: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET-Research on Enterprise and Work Innovation, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

With the emergence of a global division of labour, the internationalisation of markets and cultures, the growing power of supranational organisations and the spread of new information technologies to every field of life, it starts to appear a different kind of society, different from the industrial society, and called by many as ‘the knowledge-based economy’, emphasizing the importance of information and knowledge in many areas of work and organisation of societies. Despite the common trends of evolution, these transformations do not necessarily produce a convergence of national and regional social and economic structures, but a diversity of realities emerging from the relations between economic and political context on one hand and the companies and their strategies on the other. In this sense, which future can we expect to the knowledge economy? How can we measure it and why is it important? This paper will present some results from the European project WORKS – Work organisation and restructuring in the knowledge society (6th Framework Programme), focusing the future visions and possible future trends in different countries, sectors and industries, given empirical evidences of the case studies applied in several European countries, underling the importance of foresight exercises to design policies, prevent uncontrolled risks and anticipate alternatives, leading to different ‘knowledge economies’ and not to the ‘knowledge economy’.

Machado, T, Moniz A.  2003.  Assembling Toyota in Portugal, Jun. , Number 5881: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

A lot has been written over the last decade with regard to Toyota and the productive model associated to it (toyota-ism). And more specifically concerning the "(…) best-seller that changed the... sociological world" (Castillo, 1998: 31). But the case of Salvador Caetano’s Ovar Industrial Division (OID), that assembles Toyota light commercial vehicles in Portugal, allows us to put forward a sub-hypothesis that fits into the analysis schema proposed in the First GERPISA International Program – "In short, GERPISA members considered that the plurality of models was much a plausible hypothesis deserving testing as that of the diffusion of a unique model (…)" (Boyer, Freyssenet, 2001: 42). So we add: and within Toyota itself, is it not true that different productive models co-exist – especially when delocalised – depending, amongst other factors, on the degree of Toyota participation – in terms of capital and technology transfer – in the local company (strong or weak) and on the markets to be reached (internal or external)? If so, what work system can we expect to find in a plant that presents such peculiar characteristics as this one?

Sampaio, J, Moniz A.  2007.  Assessing Human And Technological Dimensions In Virtual Team’S Operational Competences, Sep. , Number 6942: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

Cognitive task automation may lead to over trust, complacency and loss of the necessary work environment situation awareness. This is a major constraint in complex work organizations teamwork, ending up into an operational gap, between system developments and its understanding and usability, by operators. This document presents a summary of the main results of author’s research on operational decision processes and occupational competences, applied to the air traffic control operational reality. Introducing a human/technological complementary approach to virtual team’s conceptualisation, the results show there is a dimension to be followed in human/machine integration, which stands beyond interface design, and calls for a deeper human comprehension of technological agent’s structure and functionalities, which will, ultimately, require the development of an operational cognitive framework, where work processes and technological behaviour are integrated in professional competences, as he two faces of the same coin.

Moniz, A.  1994.  The automobile sector and the organisation of the industrial space: the case of Setúbal Region (Portugal), Jul. , Number 7503: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

This paper is based on a study about the Setúbal region, included in the internacional project “The Future of Industry in Europe” for the programme FAST-MONITOR of the European Community (1992-94). There were some information on the project VW/Ford for this region and those that are connected with research networks on industrial sectors (specially, on the automobile industry), and the network on the spatial and regional factors of regional development. Those studies allowed the scenario development on evolution trends of European industry and, specifically, on the automobile sector, and on the Setúbal region that was studied by the Portuguese team.

Moniz, AB.  2012.  Avaliação participativa de tecnologia e sustentabilidade organizacional [Participative technology assessment and organisational sustainability], Apr. , Number 06/2012: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET-Research on Enterprise and Work Innovation, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

Technology Assessment (TA) considers the knowledge on (possible ou probable) technological effects in the processes of decision making and exploring potencial technological risks with secondary effects. Besides that, it is a scientific process with the aim of contributing the public and political opinion formation relative to social aspects of science and technology. That formation is done in an interactive and communicational mode. It overtakes the legitimacy and technology conflicts problems. TA is dealing with a political process either it is related with a parliamentary level decision on the introduction or limitation of new technologies, or at the level of participative processes of entities interested in the labour sphere. In this study, it is concluded that the TA processes at the level of organization of work can aim to fulfill higher levels of productivity and performance of installed equipment, or even to increase the quality of the product or the production process. That does not mean necessarily increases in income of workers and employees. That is why the participation of these actors is also so fundamental to this process.

Moniz, A.  2001.  Book review of Alice R. P. Abreu (org.): Flexible production and economic governance in Latin America. , Number http://ideas.repec.org/p/pra/mprapa/5937.html Abstract

5937

Meil, P, Stratigaki M, Linardos P, Tengblad P, Docherty P, Bannink D, Moniz A, Paulos M, Krings B, Nierling L.  2009.  Challenges for Europe under value chain restructuring: Contributions to policy debates. , Number http://ideas.repec.org/p/zbw/esrepo/65844.html Abstract

65844

Moniz, A.  2007.  The Collaborative Work Concept and the Information Systems Support: Perspectives for and from Manufacturing Industry. , Number 5627: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

Most of the discussion and controversy on organisation of work concepts has been referenced to the manufacturing industry along the 20th century: it started with the concept of “scientific management” from Taylor, and continued with the new ideas on the importance of human factors as Mayo pointed out in the 1930s. Immediately after the 2nd World War Friedmann studied the human problems related to new manufacturing technologies and automation. And the late 1950 and 1960s were decades of strong debate on the socio-technics with the research at Tavistock Institute of London and the emergence of national programmes on new forms of work organisation. At the end of the last century the concept of collaborative work was developed together with the definition(s) of information systems and organisational design. However, the interest came from other production activities, like the services. This article analyses the approaches developed on these debates on the collaborative work and information system and its application to the manufacturing industry.

Meil, P, Trommel W, Bannink D, Hoogenboom M, Moniz A, Woll T, Makó C, Csizmadia P, Illessy M, Balkmar D, Linardos P.  2006.  Comparative report - WORKS WP5 Policy pillar, May. , Number 67056: ZBW - German National Library of Economics Abstract

This report begins with some general information and analysis of policy and regulation that were the subjects of discussion and exchange in the policy pillar in the first phase of WORKS. The second section is a synthesis of country information on general principles and trends of policy and policy enforcement. This is followed by a summary of sector information for the sectors chosen by the qualitative pillar to be the objects of empirical analysis. The last summarises research questions and dimensions to be guidelines for carrying out case studies and capturing the relevance and effects of policy and institutions at the workplace. –

Maia, MJ, Moniz AB.  2011.  Competências para a Tomada de Decisão na Radiologia: Uma abordagem de Avalia{\c c}ão de Tecnologia [Competences for decision taking in Radiology: A Technology Assessment approach], Feb. , Number 02/2011: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET-Research on Enterprise and Work Innovation, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

We are facing an era, where pressures on health costs are extremely high, and the reforms in health system are almost constant. But over time, one factor remains unchanged – Technology continues being the sustenance of health care. Manufacturers, clinicians, patients, diagnostic and therapeutic technicians, hospital managers, government leaders, among others, either in public or private sector, are increasingly demanding in the sustained seek for information that support its decisions. Those decisions are about different types of issues: if, or how the technology can be developed, whether a technology should or should not enter the market, whether to acquire and use certain technology, and so forth. Such demand is well implied in the growth and development of Health Technology Assessment (HTA). This specialised field is commonly understood according to the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA, 2003) as an multidisciplinary analysis and decisional field, which studies the implications of clinical, social, ethical and economic development, dissemination and use of health technologies, without neglecting its political analysis (Goodman, 2004). The political decisions made based on HTA reports should be based on scientific evidence, linking efforts between the technical, economic and political dimensions, resourcing to a participatory vision, so that we can translate the best possible decision (Novaes 2006). On the other hand, the success of these decisions depends critically on the skills of the researcher to convey wisdom and confidence in applying rules of argumentation (Grunwald, 2007). In this paper we analyse the technical and methodological aspects of HTA, seen as a tool for evaluating health procedures and techniques. And we analyse the needs for skills and qualifications development of the actors involved in this process.

Moniz, A.  2006.  Competitividade no sector automóvel e formas inovadoras de gestão do emprego em Portugal[Competitivity in the Portuguese automotive sector and innovative forms of employment management], Sep. , Number 6970: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

If indicators of international competitivity of the Portuguese industry reveal very strong weaknesses in the field of education and vocational training, the achievement of a solution is not based only (and should not!) in a decisive increase of investment and support in the education and training system. It seem not logical to think in that way, once normally when one tries to solve a problem that is done in the context of that same problem. Eventually there are other strategies. Which are, then, the fields where is necessary to orient the investiment to improve an industrial competitivity? To try to answer this question, we analise one of the sectors that have contributed the most for an improvement of the Portuguese economical performance, and for a true innovative process as in terms of industrial product, or in terms of manufacturing and distribution processes. Is the automotive sector where that happens, taken in its two most important sub-sectors: the one of automobile manufacturing and assembly, and the one of components manufacturing.

Moniz, A.  1993.  Concep{\c c}ão de postos de trabalho em novos sistemas produtivos: o exemplo da robÓtica industrial[Job design in new productive systems: the exemple of industrial robotics]. , Number 7191: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

The design of jobs is defined and its different implications. These aspects must be taken into consideration when applied to new automated systems, once it can occur workers in-adaptations to certain type of activity and tasks. Other concepts that emerge from this are the mental workload, stress, work accidents, shift work, or the physical environment that can reveal to become determinant in the process of job design. That means also the organizational design. In this sense, the manufacturing, organizational and individual dimensions, are the most meaningful in the mentioned process of organizational design. Are analyzed different application cases of robotized systems and their social effects, mostly those that are related to the dimensions of working conditions. Are particularly analyzed the new risk situations that occur with the use of robotic systems. One concludes on the need to take into consideration qualitative variables in the definition and design of robotic cells, jobs and production systems. This consideration influences directly in the labor productivity, in such way that the development of these methodologies of analysis can be considered as integrating the processes of technological innovation in manufacturing.

Moniz, A, Kovács I.  2000.  Conditions Of Inter-Firm Co-Operation In A Virtual Enterprise Concept : The Case Of Automotive Sector In Portugal. , Number 5658: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

One can assist to significant changes in the organisation of manufacturing systems during the last years. Lean production, network enterprise or the virtual enterprises are reference concepts of the re-organisation of manufacturing systems. Some authors mention a new enterprise paradigm, of generalisation of intelligent manufacture, organised in networks and assisted by information and communication technologies. The first part of the paper develops a critical approach to the illusion connected to these concepts, calling the attention to the diversity of the type of relationships among firms. If virtual enterprises (VE) are networks of firms with intensive usage of ICT, one can verify a predominance of a technicist perspective. This one considers that the development of VEs is a technological problem, of development and management of information systems, and of entrepreneurial share of different databases. Sociology can be useful, even fundamental in an anthropocentric approach. The last part of the paper is on the Portuguese situation in the automobile sector, approaching the types of entrepreneurial organisation.

Moniz, AB.  2002.  A contribui{\c c}ão da Sociologia para a forma{\c c}ão em Engenharia[Contribution of sociology to the engineering training], May. , Number 8103: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

This article is based on the lesson presented in the scope of academy activities in the area of Sociology (at FCT-UNL). It is intended to approach the controversies concerning the relation between technology and society (technological determinism, effect on employment, importance of the social behaviours in the definition of needs for new products and equipment), and on the most recent trends (over all, since middle of the last century) in terms of technological evolution and of its social and cultural change. Finally, this subject was dedicated to the presentation of the main factors that has lead to the development of the contribution of sociology for the training and education in engineering. Thus, one intends to acquire new elements on this area of knowledge also presented in other schools of engineering of other countries (for examples, United States and Holland), and how the theoretical beddings are been developed since the beginning of 20th century on the modalities of work organization that imply a cooperation between engineering and social sciences.

Moniz, A.  2001.  A coopera{\c c}ão entre equipas de trabalho em empresas em rede: vantagens para o desenvolvimento regional[Workteam Co-operation in Networked Companies: regional development advantages], Sep. , Number 37580: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

Working teams in enterprise environment are considered as the most advanced forms of work organisation. This means the forms that can improve productivity quality of working life. Nevertheless, it prevail a slow development and dissemination of these advanced organisational forms in European companies. The reason for that lays in a complex linkage factors from social values to the economical pressures. But other factors are also related to the national systems of education training, to the different systems of industrial relations and technology policy.

Moniz, A.  2001.  A coopera{\c c}ão entre equipas de trabalho em empresas em rede: vantagens para o desenvolvimento regional[Workteam Co-operation in Networked Companies: regional development advantages]. , Number 5920: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

Working teams in enterprise environment are considered as the most advanced forms of work organisation. This means the forms that can improve productivity quality of working life. Nevertheless, it prevails a slow development and dissemination of these advanced organisational forms in European companies. The reason for that lays in a complex linkage factors from social values to the economical pressures. But other factors are also related to the national systems of education training, to the different systems of industrial relations and technology policy.

Moniz, A.  2002.  Crescimento da produtividade e organiza{\c c}ão do trabalho: discussão de alguns factores[Productivity growth and organisation of work: Discussion of some factors], Dec. , Number 6515: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

Recent studies continue to indicate the existence of a narrow relationship between flexible work organizations and the economic growth, in particular, Sweden and Germany. The measure of this relationship is many times the result of the value added per worker. Therefore, the causes of economic growth must be perceived from the interior of the company (work organization, technology, infrastructures, product design). On the other hand, the capacity of innovation can be perceived by the market through new products and services, and still significant changes with the introduction of new equipment and design of an efficient work organization. In this article it is analyzed the evolution of the productivity and employment levels in Portugal and other European countries, over all, during the decade of 90. An analysis for sector is made still. One verifies often that economic growth can be without employment growth. However, the growth can be obtained when if it reaches bigger added value and the efficiency can be verified when there are diminished costs for a same period of time, although that the labor productivity is also the pointer of the quality of life in a economy, therefore it represents the value produced by the work. Moreover, the total factors productivity is the measure of the technological and organizational progress (don’t includes only the technological investments). It is tried to get and to analyze the available statistics on these dimension in Portugal, concluding that Portugal presents an enterprise structure predominantly based on small and very small companies, a great number of which is market by a weak potential of adaptability, innovation and sustainability. It becomes urgent to take the non-material factors that integrate the productivity dimension, as factors of intervention for a benchmarking that allows a process of sustainable growth.

Moniz, AB.  2010.  Designing a Technology Assessment post-graduation programme: experiences, limits and needs, Sep. , Number 09/2010: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET-Research on Enterprise and Work Innovation, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

The post-graduation in the field of Technology Assessment (TA) is recent and that are several and different ways to be organised. Most experiences are related with the Masters diplom level (2nd cycle of graduation in high education). Just one in PhD level is explicit in the field of TA, and some other PhD courses include also TA topics in their programme structure. In this chapter we will analyse the problems related with the design of a post-graduation (MA, MSc or PhD) programme in the field of TA using as reference some international experiences. Hereby, the main conclusion seems to address labour market needs in the specialised knowledge of TA, of technology management or technology innovation. In this sense TA should be included as “minor” into post-graduation courses which may range from engineering disciplines to social sciences. As a graduation programme it can fill an expertise gap between technicians,engineers, scientists and the strategic decision makers or policy makers.

Moniz, A.  2004.  Discussão de temas de cenariza{\c c}ão para a indústria automóvel para aplica{\c c}ão do método Delphi em Portugal[Discussion of scenario topics for the automotive industry to apply a Delphi method, Jun. , Number 5933: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

As was recently published in the GERPISA newsletter, one of the aims of the research for the new years will be the knowledge of interactions between the organisational company dynamics and the social-economical models of development. If one takes the example of the German exercise in the framework of FUTUR programme, one of the main thematic groups that emerged from the first discussions was preciselly “Mobility: individually atractive and socially sustainable”. Also the IMVP programme at MIT is taking these questions on the “visions for a sustainable future” theme. In the same way the WorTiS Project analysed several scenario topics on the issue of mobility and automotive industry. Those scenario topics are explained and justified in this research paper.

Krings, B, Moniz A.  2001.  El desarrollo socio-cultural de la sociedad de la información: Competencia o cooperación?[Socio-cultural development of information society: competition or co-operation?], Jun , Number 6885: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

The results presented in this article are related to the field of investigation defined inside the European TSER project on "Information Society, Work and Generation of New Forms of Social Exclusion " (SOWING). The thematic center of the project is connected with the question of the relations that exist between the introduction of information technologies (IT) and the changes in the waged labour as well as in the organisation of work systems. The introduction of these technologies transformed specially the activities on services as well as certain branches, where great changes of the organization of work for the next future assume, which are discussed within the margin of the debate on future forms of work. The tendencies within the occupational structures indicate an individualisation of the insecurities and an opening of the occupational carreers. For these reasons, the development of the occupational carreers is more and more bound to the biographical planning. The institutionalised occupational model is changing very strongly, which in the long term will take to social and cultural changes, not only in the professional life, but also in the private life.

Moniz, A.  2004.  Elementos para o estudo de um caso de sucesso na montagem automóvel em Portugal: a Opel Portugal[Elements for the study of a success case in automobile assembly: the Opel Portugal]. , Number 5938: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

The interest to study this factory of GM group in Portugal is due to the facto of being one of the oldest assembly lines of the automotive sector still operating in Portugal (it was founded in 1963). Besides that, it went recently across a very intensive technological change, and then would be interesting to know the organisation of work model chose. The Opel factory occupies at the moment the former one that belonged to Ford Lusitana. There it has being under production some modules that feed the assembly line on JIT and in sequence. Although there were severe difficulties to implement the case study at Opel, this report could be done using secondary information and several interviews at the factory and initial visits. This Opel factory was recently closed down in the frame of a GM European strategy for re-structuring.