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Kovács, I, Moniz A.  1994.  Trends for the development of anthropocentric production systems in small less industrialised countries: The case of Portugal, Jul. , Number 6551: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

This paper analyses the problems and trends of the introduction of anthropocentric production systems (APS) in small less industrialized member states of the European Union, specifically the case of Portugal, based on the report for the FAST-Anthropocentric Technology Assessment Project (Monitor Programme) on “Prospects and conditions for APS in Europe by the 21st century”. Research teams from all countries of the European Community, as well as researchers from USA, Japan and Australia were participating in this project. The aim of this paper is to characterize APS and to present some special considerations related to the socioeconomic factors affecting the prospects and conditions for APS in Portugal. APS is defined as a system based on the utilization of skilled human resources and flexible technology adapted to the needs of flexible and participative organization. Among socioeconomic factors, some critical aspects for the development of APS will be focused, namely technological infrastructure, management strategies, perceived impact of introduction of automated systems on the division of labor and organizational structure, educational and vocational training and social actors strategies towards industrial automation. This analysis is based on a sample of industrial firms, built up for qualitative analysis, and on case studies analysis that can be reference examples for further development of APS, and not just for economic policy purposes alone. We have also analyzed the type of existing industrial relations, the union and employer strategies and some aspects of public policies towards the introduction of new technologies in the order to understand the extent to which there exist obstacles to and favorable conditions for the diffusion of anthropocentric systems. Finally some recommendations are presented to stress the trends for the implementation and development of anthropocentric production systems in Portugal.

Kovács, I, Moniz A.  2002.  The Sociology of Work and the work of sociologists in Portugal, Apr. , Number 7891: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

A propose for this article is to present information on the emergence of the knowledge field of sociology of work and labor studies in Portugal. The period of 1974-1984 produced an interesting bibliography in the fields of social stratification, labor conflicts and social history. However, and since the mid-1980s, significant changes have emerged. There took place an increased theoretical diversity and also there was a major preoccupation with the development of a more professional teaching of the discipline. At this time, the first graduated specialists in Sociology appeared in the labor market since 1980, working in municipalities, industrial firms, public health institutions, schools, or even in research and development (R&D) units. The Portuguese association in this field (APSIOT) organized many scientific meetings, debates with unionists, managers and politicians, beside the regular publication of review “Organiza{\c c}ões e Trabalho” (Organization and Work) since 1989. It started the diffusion of a professional culture of sociologists who associate science and their occupation concerning themselves not only with scientific quality, but also with technical competence and social responsibility. At the same time, one could assist to the participation of sociologists in the social and organizational molding of new technologies in order to promote alternative production systems.

Kovács, I, Moniz A.  2002.  {The Sociology of Work and the work of sociologists in Portugal}, Apr. , Number 7891: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

A propose for this article is to present information on the emergence of the knowledge field of sociology of work and labor studies in Portugal. The period of 1974-1984 produced an interesting bibliography in the fields of social stratification, labor conflicts and social history. However, and since the mid-1980s, significant changes have emerged. There took place an increased theoretical diversity and also there was a major preoccupation with the development of a more professional teaching of the discipline. At this time, the first graduated specialists in Sociology appeared in the labor market since 1980, working in municipalities, industrial firms, public health institutions, schools, or even in research and development (R&D) units. The Portuguese association in this field (APSIOT) organized many scientific meetings, debates with unionists, managers and politicians, beside the regular publication of review “Organizações e Trabalho” (Organization and Work) since 1989. It started the diffusion of a professional culture of sociologists who associate science and their occupation concerning themselves not only with scientific quality, but also with technical competence and social responsibility. At the same time, one could assist to the participation of sociologists in the social and organizational molding of new technologies in order to promote alternative production systems.

Kovács, I, Moniz A.  1994.  {Trends for the development of anthropocentric production systems in small less industrialised countries: The case of Portugal}, Jul. , Number 6551: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

This paper analyses the problems and trends of the introduction of anthropocentric production systems (APS) in small less industrialized member states of the European Union, specifically the case of Portugal, based on the report for the FAST-Anthropocentric Technology Assessment Project (Monitor Programme) on “Prospects and conditions for APS in Europe by the 21st century”. Research teams from all countries of the European Community, as well as researchers from USA, Japan and Australia were participating in this project. The aim of this paper is to characterize APS and to present some special considerations related to the socioeconomic factors affecting the prospects and conditions for APS in Portugal. APS is defined as a system based on the utilization of skilled human resources and flexible technology adapted to the needs of flexible and participative organization. Among socioeconomic factors, some critical aspects for the development of APS will be focused, namely technological infrastructure, management strategies, perceived impact of introduction of automated systems on the division of labor and organizational structure, educational and vocational training and social actors strategies towards industrial automation. This analysis is based on a sample of industrial firms, built up for qualitative analysis, and on case studies analysis that can be reference examples for further development of APS, and not just for economic policy purposes alone. We have also analyzed the type of existing industrial relations, the union and employer strategies and some aspects of public policies towards the introduction of new technologies in the order to understand the extent to which there exist obstacles to and favorable conditions for the diffusion of anthropocentric systems. Finally some recommendations are presented to stress the trends for the implementation and development of anthropocentric production systems in Portugal.

Krings, B.  2005.  {Hen or Egg? The relationship between IC-technologies and social exclusion}, Jun , Number 9568: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

If we take a look at developments on the labour market, we find that the rate of employment stands in a close relationship to the introduction of new technologies and their social and cultural consequences. The immediate effects of new technologies on new forms of work-structures are, in fact, difficult to determine empirically. In order to avoid a strong technological bias in the scientific perspective, it seems important to consider carefully the normative objectives and goals, which are connected with the introduction of IC-technologies. But nevertheless it is difficult to define clearly the causes and the effects of new technologies as well as the technical changes and its social consequences. The intention of the article is to present the concept of social exclusion within the SOWING-project. Of course this concept is embedded in the scientific debate of the Information Society, which has a strong technological focus and represents the discussion of the Western, highly industrialized societies. But nevertheless the empirical findings of the SOWING project come to the general conclusion, that the rise of new forms of social exclusion cannot be considered as the result of the introduction of ICT, but as the result of the normative idea of a more effective and global organized economy. The social consequences of this development depend strongly on the establishment of a democratic procedure, which integrates the concerning social groups.

Krings, B.  2007.  {Wandel der Arbeit: Die Krise der Arbeitsgesellschaft[Change on Work: the crisis of the labour economy]}, Jun. , Number 7130: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

In 1982, at the 21st German Congress of Sociology the discussion was around a new topic: the crisis of the labour economy. Since then the conditions changed and the informatisation and technology development of work environments took place. Here are presented some of the new trends in terms of analisis of changes in the work environment. Der im Jahre 1982 durchgeführte 21. Deutschen Soziologentag in Bamberg mit dem Titel „Krise der Arbeitsgesellschaft?“ wurde sicherlich bewusst mit einem Fragezeichen versehen. Wenn im Rahmen der „Verhandlungen“ in Bamberg noch die Möglichkeit ausgeschlossen wurde, wissensbasierte Tätigkeitsfelder zu „normieren“, so wurden über die beiden organisatorischen Instrumente der Selbstorganisation und der Flexibilisierung höchst effektive Rahmenbedingungen geschaffen, um die Nutzung der Arbeitskraft zu kontrollieren und zu steigern. Aus unterschiedlichen Blickwinkeln und Arbeitskontexten beschäftigen sich alle Beiträge des vorliegenden Schwerpunktes mit dem Wandel der Arbeit.

Krings, B-J, Weinberger N.  2018.  Assistant without Master? Some Conceptual Implications of Assistive Robotics in Health Care Technologies. 18(1) AbstractWebsite

The subject of “technical assistants” in inpatient care is currently being widely discussed in scientific and public circles. In many cases, though, it has become apparent that the umbrella term “assistive technologies”, also in the context of robotics, is very contrived. Against this background, the authors of this article reflect on the meaning of “assistance” in socio-technical systems, and critically review its relevance. To understand and demonstrate “assistive” functions, it is essential to establish a frame of reference. The re-evaluation of an empirical study of people with dementia in inpatient care has revealed the functional character of technical assistance systems. The results, however, show that the theoretical debate on the social and organisational function of “assistance” in these technical fields is still lacking. Therefore, the reflections in this paper may also provide some starting points for this debate.

Krings, B-J.  2016.  Strategien der Individualisierung. Neue Konzepte und Befunde zur soziologischen Individualisierungsthese. , Bielefeld: transcript Abstract

Der Begriff der Individualisierung trägt in der Regel negative Konnotationen: sei es im Hinblick auf eine zunehmende Vereinzelung und Vereinsamung von Individuen oder hinsichtlich der Zunahme egoistisch anmutender Handlungen von Menschen, die das Gemeinwohl aus dem Blick verlieren. Prozesse der Individualisierung werden daher häufig als Bedrohung für die Konstituierung moderner Gesellschaften diskutiert. Diese Studie hingegen präsentiert eine neue Lesart der Individualisierung. Orientiert an Niklas Luhmanns Arbeiten und gestützt auf Ergebnisse einer empirischen Studie legt Bettina-Johanna Krings eine soziologische Betrachtung vor, die die Aufforderung zur Individualisierung als eine notwendige Herausforderung in modernen Gesellschaften interpretiert.

Krings, B-J, Decker M, Weinberger N, Hirsch J.  2017.  Imagined technology futures in demand-oriented technology assessment. Journal of Responsible Innovation. 4(2):177-196.
Krings, B, Moniz A.  2001.  El desarrollo socio-cultural de la sociedad de la información: Competencia o cooperación?[Socio-cultural development of information society: competition or co-operation?], Jun , Number 6885: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

The results presented in this article are related to the field of investigation defined inside the European TSER project on "Information Society, Work and Generation of New Forms of Social Exclusion " (SOWING). The thematic center of the project is connected with the question of the relations that exist between the introduction of information technologies (IT) and the changes in the waged labour as well as in the organisation of work systems. The introduction of these technologies transformed specially the activities on services as well as certain branches, where great changes of the organization of work for the next future assume, which are discussed within the margin of the debate on future forms of work. The tendencies within the occupational structures indicate an individualisation of the insecurities and an opening of the occupational carreers. For these reasons, the development of the occupational carreers is more and more bound to the biographical planning. The institutionalised occupational model is changing very strongly, which in the long term will take to social and cultural changes, not only in the professional life, but also in the private life.

Krings, B.  2009.  {Global restructuring and its effects on occupations: towards a new division of labor?}, Dec , Number 12/2009: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IET/CICS.NOVA-Interdisciplinary Centre on Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology Abstract

The following contribution considers whether global restructuring creates new forms of the division of labor. On the basis of empirical data from a comparative project in 14 European countries, the author supports the hypothesis that in addition to the ongoing process of the internationalization of work, there are ‘hidden’ effects at the local level. From the perspective of three occupational clusters, dynamics can be observed which have differing impacts on the occupational groups. Thus, there is a simultaneous process of restructuring and redefining skills, labor processes and the working organization which forms the daily reality of working men and women.

Krings, B.  2002.  {Genderforschung und Technikentwicklung[Gender Research and Technology Development: introduction to the main topics]}. , Number 7129: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

Since the UN World Conference on Women in 1995 the discussion on gender has been extremely controverse. This issue of the Journal on Technology Assessment (from ITAS) presents and discuss the topic of gender research, and the relation between work and life and the changes that are occuring in the spheres of working lifes and daily lifes. Noch im Umfeld der 4. UN-Weltfrauenkonferenz in Peking 1995 wurde der Begriff gender extrem kontrovers diskutiert. Die Zeitschrift für Technikfolgenabschätzung des ITAS greift mit diesem Schwerpunkt erstmals das Thema „Genderforschung“ auf. Die Verknüpfung der beiden Themengebiete geht auf das Projekt: Wandel der Lebens- und Arbeitsbedingungen im Multimediabereich aus der Genderperspektive zurück, das zurzeit von ITAS im Auftrag des Sozialministerium Baden-Württemberg durchgeführt wird.

Krings, B-J, Hülsken-Giesler M.  2015.  Technik und Pflege in einer Gesellschaft des langen Lebens - Einführung in den Schwerpunkt. Technikfolgenabschätzung - Theorie und Praxis. 24(2):4-11.
Krings, B-J, Weinberger N, Decker M.  2016.  Enabling a mobile and independent way of life for people with dementia - Needs-oriented technology development. Ageing and technology. Perspectives from the social sciences. :183-204., Bielefeld: transcript
Krings, B-J.  2006.  {The sociological perspective on the knowledge-based society: assumptions, facts and visions}, November. Enterprise and Work Innovation Studies. 2:9-19., Number 2 AbstractWebsite

The paper will present the central discourse of the knowledge-based society. Already in the 1960s the debate of the industrial society already raised the question whether there can be considered a paradigm shift towards a knowledge-based society. Some prominent authors already foreseen ‘knowledge’ as the main indicator in order to displace ‘labour’ and ‘capital’ as the main driving forces of the capitalistic development. Today on the political level and also in many scientific disciplines the assumption that we are already living in a knowledge-based society seems obvious. Although we still do not have a theory of the knowledge-based society and there still exist a methodological gap about the empirical indicators, the vision of a knowledge-based society determines at least the perception of the Western societies. In a first step the author will pinpoint the assumptions about the knowledge-based society on three levels: on the societal, on the organisational and on the individual level. These assumptions are relied on the following topics: a) The role of the information and communication technologies; b) The dynamic development of globalisation as an ‘evolutionary’ process; c) The increasing importance of knowledge management within organisations; d) The changing role of the state within the economic processes. Not only the differentiation between the levels but also the revision of the assumptions of a knowledge-based society will show that the ‘topics raised in the debates’ cannot be considered as the results of a profound societal paradigm shift. However what seems very impressive is the normative and virtual shift towards a concept of modernity, which strongly focuses on the role of technology as a driving force as well as on the global economic markets, which has to be accepted. Therefore – according to the official debate - the successful adaptation of these processes seems the only way to meet the knowledge-based society. Analysing the societal changes on the

Krings, B.  2006.  {The sociological perspective on the knowledge-based society: assumptions, facts and visions}. , Number 7110: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

The paper will present the central discourse of the knowledge-based society. Already in the 1960s the debate of the industrial society already raised the question whether there can be considered a paradigm shift towards a knowledge-based society. Some prominent authors already foreseen ‘knowledge’ as the main indicator in order to displace ‘labour’ and ‘capital’ as the main driving forces of the capitalistic development. Today on the political level and also in many scientific disciplines the assumption that we are already living in a knowledge-based society seems obvious. Although we still do not have a theory of the knowledge-based society and there still exist a methodological gap about the empirical indicators, the vision of a knowledge-based society determines at least the perception of the Western societies. In a first step the author will pinpoint the assumptions about the knowledge-based society on three levels: on the societal, on the organisational and on the individual level. These assumptions are relied on the following topics: a) The role of the information and communication technologies; b) The dynamic development of globalisation as an ‘evolutionary’ process; c) The increasing importance of knowledge management within organisations; d) The changing role of the state within the economic processes. Not only the differentiation between the levels but also the revision of the assumptions of a knowledge-based society will show that the ‘topics raised in the debates’ cannot be considered as the results of a profound societal paradigm shift. However what seems very impressive is the normative and virtual shift towards a concept of modernity, which strongly focuses on the role of technology as a driving force as well as on the global economic markets, which has to be accepted. Therefore – according to the official debate - the successful adaptation of these processes seems the only way to meet the knowledge-based society. Analysing the societal changes on the

Krings, B, Moniz A.  2001.  {El desarrollo socio-cultural de la sociedad de la información: Competencia o cooperación?[Socio-cultural development of information society: competition or co-operation?]}, Jun , Number 6885: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

The results presented in this article are related to the field of investigation defined inside the European TSER project on "Information Society, Work and Generation of New Forms of Social Exclusion " (SOWING). The thematic center of the project is connected with the question of the relations that exist between the introduction of information technologies (IT) and the changes in the waged labour as well as in the organisation of work systems. The introduction of these technologies transformed specially the activities on services as well as certain branches, where great changes of the organization of work for the next future assume, which are discussed within the margin of the debate on future forms of work. The tendencies within the occupational structures indicate an individualisation of the insecurities and an opening of the occupational carreers. For these reasons, the development of the occupational carreers is more and more bound to the biographical planning. The institutionalised occupational model is changing very strongly, which in the long term will take to social and cultural changes, not only in the professional life, but also in the private life.

Krings, B-J, Nierling L.  2015.  About the attraction of machine logic. The field of elderly care.. he next horizon of technology assessment. :217-221., Prague: Technology Centre ASCR
Krings, B, Moniz A.  2001.  {El desarrollo socio-cultural de la sociedad de la información: Competencia o cooperación?[Socio-cultural development of information society: competition or co-operation?]}, Jun , Number 6885: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

The results presented in this article are related to the field of investigation defined inside the European TSER project on "Information Society, Work and Generation of New Forms of Social Exclusion " (SOWING). The thematic center of the project is connected with the question of the relations that exist between the introduction of information technologies (IT) and the changes in the waged labour as well as in the organisation of work systems. The introduction of these technologies transformed specially the activities on services as well as certain branches, where great changes of the organization of work for the next future assume, which are discussed within the margin of the debate on future forms of work. The tendencies within the occupational structures indicate an individualisation of the insecurities and an opening of the occupational carreers. For these reasons, the development of the occupational carreers is more and more bound to the biographical planning. The institutionalised occupational model is changing very strongly, which in the long term will take to social and cultural changes, not only in the professional life, but also in the private life.

Krings, B-J, Rodriguez H, Schleisiek A.  2016.  Scientific knowledge and the transgression of boundaries. , Wiesbaden: Springer VS Abstract

The aim of this book is to understand and critically appraise science-based transgression dynamics in their whole complexity. It includes contributions from experts with different disciplinary backgrounds, such as philosophy, history and sociology. Thus, it is in itself an example of boundary transgession. Scientific disciplines and their objects have tended to be seen as permanent and distinct. However, science is better conceived as an activity that constantly surpasses, erases and rebuilds all kinds of boundaries, either disciplinary, socio-ethical or ecological. This transgressive capacity, a characteristic trait of science and its applications, defines us as "knowledge societies." However, scientific and technological developments are also sources of serious environmental and social concerns.

Kuhlmann, S, Boekholt P, Georghiou L, Guy K, Heraud J-A, Laredo P, Lemola T, Loveridge D, Luukkonen T, Moniz A, Polt W, Rip.  1999.  {Improving Distributed Intelligence in Complex Innovation Systems}, Jun. , Number 6426: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

Science and technology (S&T) are considered to be a central source, or at least a basic medium, of societal and industrial innovation, while innovation is conceived to basically feed the regeneration of our welfare. The suppliers of S&T in Europe as well as the users of their „products“, are confronted with a number of challenges today. We want to stress here that it was not the primary goal of our Advanced Science & Technology Policy Planning (ASTPP) Network to come up with proposals how the strategic character of European S&T policies could be strengthened. The ASTPP-network instead focuses on one aspect: the provision of strategic intelligence necessary to identify and develop strategic choices. The underlying hypothesis is that the existing body of experiences with technology foresight, technology assessment and S/T policy evaluation provides a basis for the development of an advanced S&T policy „planning“ approach by trying to enhance, interlink or even integrate the growing, but still dispersed experience in these three areas of intelligence. By „intelligent“ we mean that the inter-relatedness of S&T, industrial efforts, societal needs and political interventions becomes more transparent so that interactive collaboration between them will be facilitated.

Kuhlmann, S, Boekholt P, Georghiou L, Guy K, Heraud J-A, Laredo P, Lemola T, Loveridge D, Luukkonen T, Moniz A, Polt W, Ri.  1999.  Improving Distributed Intelligence in Complex Innovation Systems, Jun. , Number 6426: University Library of Munich, Germany Abstract

Science and technology (S&T) are considered to be a central source, or at least a basic medium, of societal and industrial innovation, while innovation is conceived to basically feed the regeneration of our welfare. The suppliers of S&T in Europe as well as the users of their „products“, are confronted with a number of challenges today. We want to stress here that it was not the primary goal of our Advanced Science & Technology Policy Planning (ASTPP) Network to come up with proposals how the strategic character of European S&T policies could be strengthened. The ASTPP-network instead focuses on one aspect: the provision of strategic intelligence necessary to identify and develop strategic choices. The underlying hypothesis is that the existing body of experiences with technology foresight, technology assessment and S/T policy evaluation provides a basis for the development of an advanced S&T policy „planning“ approach by trying to enhance, interlink or even integrate the growing, but still dispersed experience in these three areas of intelligence. By „intelligent“ we mean that the inter-relatedness of S&T, industrial efforts, societal needs and political interventions becomes more transparent so that interactive collaboration between them will be facilitated.