Governance: formal / informal democratic structures. Legal framework for participation. The role of politicians, experts and civil society. The role of the different types of knowledge – lay, traditional, historical and technical – and need of articulation. Construction of meaning, histories and myths in the relevance of information. The discourse as a way of power in societies. Capital building (intellectual, social, politico, institutional). Challenges of the new contexts. Difficulties in the implementation of active participation and myths. Key concepts: type of problems; communication; group dynamics; interests/values/positions. Value-added and synergies of group work.

Theory and practice of interactive methodologies and collaborative participation (3rd generation): identification and assessment of key actors, their interests and perceptions; Stakeholder mapping, relationship and conflict networks; Perception and risk assessment; Facilitation techniques, negotiation and environmental mediation. Communication, involvement and mobilization of citizens, NGO and the private sector. Integration of interactive methods in studies/plans/projects. Key aspects, methodologies and tools of participated modeling. Case studies: qualitative and quantitative approaches. Environmental conflicts: Nimby effect; structuring participatory processes for conflict resolution. Environmental and Land Use policies: development of strategies and policies; structuring consensus building processes. New forms of citizenship and social responsibility: the role of the expert.