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Ca2+ and the bacterial peroxidases: the cytochrome c peroxidase from Pseudomonas stutzeri, Timoteo, C. G., Tavares P., Goodhew C. F., Duarte L. C., Jumel K., Girio F. M. F., Harding S., Pettigrew G. W., and Moura I. , Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, Jan, Volume 8, Number 1-2, p.29-37, (2003) AbstractWebsite

The production of cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP) from Pseudomonas (Ps.) stutzeri (ATCC 11607) was optimized by adjusting the composition of the growth medium and aeration of the culture. The protein was isolated and characterized biochemically and spectroscopically in the oxidized and mixed valence forms. The activity of Ps. stutzeri CCP was studied using two different ferrocytochromes as electron donors: Ps. stutzeri cytochrome C-551 (the physiological electron donor) and horse heart cytochrome c. These electron donors interact differently with Ps. stutzeri CCP, exhibiting different ionic strength dependence. The CCP from Paracoccus (Pa.) denitrificans was proposed to have two different Ca2+ binding sites: one usually occupied (site I) and the other either empty or partially occupied in the oxidized enzyme (site II). The Ps. stutzeri enzyme was purified in a form with tightly bound Ca2+. The affinity for Ca2+ in the mixed valence enzyme is so high that Ca2+ returns to it from the EGTA which was added to empty the site in the oxidized enzyme. Molecular mass determination by ultracentrifugation and behavior on gel filtration chromatography have revealed that this CCP is isolated as an active dimer, in contrast to the Pa. denitrificans CCP which requires added Ca2+ for formation of the dimer and also for activation of the enzyme. This is consistent with the proposal that Ca2+ in the bacterial peroxidases influences the monomer/dimer equilibrium and the transition to the active form of the enzyme. Additional Ca2+ does affect both the kinetics of oxidation of horse heart cytochrome c (but not cytochrome C-551) and higher aggregation states of the enzyme. This suggests the presence of a superficial Ca2+ binding site of low affinity.

Calcium-dependent conformation of a heme and fingerprint peptide of the diheme cytochrome c peroxidase from Paracoccus pantotrophus, Pauleta, S. R., Lu Y., Goodhew C. F., Moura I., Pettigrew G. W., and Shelnutt J. A. , Biochemistry, Jun 5, Volume 40, Number 22, p.6570-6579, (2001) AbstractWebsite

The structural changes in the heme macrocycle and substituents caused by binding of Ca2+ to the diheme cytochrome c peroxidase from Paracoccus pantotrophus were clarified by resonance Raman spectroscopy of the inactive fully oxidized form of the enzyme. The changes in the macrocycle vibrational modes are consistent with a Ca2+-dependent increase in the out-of-plane distortion of the low-potential heme, the proposed peroxidatic heme. Most of the increase in out-of-plane distortion occurs when the high-affinity site I is occupied, but a small further increase in distortion occurs when site II is also occupied by Ca2+ or Mg2+. This increase in the heme distortion explains the red shift in the Soret absorption band that occurs upon Ca2+ binding. Changes also occur in the low-frequency substituent modes of the heme, indicating that a structural change in the covalently attached fingerprint pentapeptide of the LP heme occurs upon Ca2+ binding to site I. These structural changes may lead to loss of the sixth ligand at the peroxidatic heme in the semireduced form of the enzyme and activation.

Camelid nanobodies raised against an integral membrane enzyme, nitric oxide reductase, Conrath, K., Pereira A. S., Martins C. E., Timoteo C. G., Tavares P., Spinelli S., Kinne J., Flaudrops C., Cambillau C., Muyldermans S., Moura I., Moura J. J., Tegoni M., and Desmyter A. , Protein Sci, Mar, Volume 18, Number 3, p.619-28, (2009) AbstractWebsite

Nitric Oxide Reductase (NOR) is an integral membrane protein performing the reduction of NO to N(2)O. NOR is composed of two subunits: the large one (NorB) is a bundle of 12 transmembrane helices (TMH). It contains a b type heme and a binuclear iron site, which is believed to be the catalytic site, comprising a heme b and a non-hemic iron. The small subunit (NorC) harbors a cytochrome c and is attached to the membrane through a unique TMH. With the aim to perform structural and functional studies of NOR, we have immunized dromedaries with NOR and produced several antibody fragments of the heavy chain (VHHs, also known as nanobodies). These fragments have been used to develop a faster NOR purification procedure, to proceed to crystallization assays and to analyze the electron transfer of electron donors. BIAcore experiments have revealed that up to three VHHs can bind concomitantly to NOR with affinities in the nanomolar range. This is the first example of the use of VHHs with an integral membrane protein. Our results indicate that VHHs are able to recognize with high affinity distinct epitopes on this class of proteins, and can be used as versatile and valuable tool for purification, functional study and crystallization of integral membrane proteins.

Can ultrasonic energy efficiently speed (18)O-labeling of proteins?, Carreira, Ricardo J., Lodeiro Carlos, Diniz Mario S., Moura Isabel, and Capelo Jose L. , Proteomics, Nov, Volume 9, Number 21, p.4974-4977, (2009) AbstractWebsite

We report in this work on the robustness of ultrasonic energy as a tool to speed the isotopic labeling of proteins using the (18)O-decoupling procedure. The first part of the decoupling procedure, comprising protein denaturation, reduction, alkylation and digestion, is done in 8 min under the effects of an ultrasonic field whilst the second part, the isotopic labeling, was assayed with and without the use of ultrasonic energy. Our results clearly demonstrate that the (18)O-isotopic labeling in a decoupling procedure cannot be accelerated using an ultrasonic field.

Can ultrasonic energy efficiently speed (18)O-labeling of proteins?, Carreira, Ricardo J., Lodeiro Carlos, Diniz Mario S., Moura Isabel, and Capelo Jose L. , Proteomics, Nov, Volume 9, Number 21, p.4974-4977, (2009) AbstractWebsite

We report in this work on the robustness of ultrasonic energy as a tool to speed the isotopic labeling of proteins using the (18)O-decoupling procedure. The first part of the decoupling procedure, comprising protein denaturation, reduction, alkylation and digestion, is done in 8 min under the effects of an ultrasonic field whilst the second part, the isotopic labeling, was assayed with and without the use of ultrasonic energy. Our results clearly demonstrate that the (18)O-isotopic labeling in a decoupling procedure cannot be accelerated using an ultrasonic field.

Carbon dioxide utilisation - bioelectrochemical approaches, C.M., Cordas, J.J.G. Moura, A. Escapa, and R. Mateos , Enzymes for Solving Humankind's Problems, Moura J.J.G., Moura I., Maia L.B. (eds), p.83-108, (2021)
Carbon dioxide utilisation - the formate route, L.B., Maia, I. Moura, and J.J.G. Moura , Enzymes for Solving Humankind's Problems, Moura J.J.G., Moura I., Maia L.B. (eds), p.29-81, (2021) co2_utilisation-formate_formation-2021.pdf
The catalytic cycle of nitrous oxide reductase - The enzyme that catalyzes the last step of denitrification, Carreira, C., Pauleta S. R., and Moura I. , J Inorg Biochem, Volume 177, p.423-434, (2017)
Changes in metabolic pathways of Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 cells induced by molybdate excess, Nair, R. R., Silveira C. M., Diniz M. S., Almeida M. G., Moura J. J. G., and Rivas M. G. , J Biol Inorg Chem, Volume 20, p.311–322, (2015)
Characterization of a 7Fe ferredoxin isolated from the marine denitrifier Pseudomonas nautica strain 617: spectroscopic and electrochemical studies, Macedo, A. L., Besson S., Moreno C., Fauque G., Moura J. J., and Moura I. , Biochem Biophys Res Commun, Dec 13, Volume 229, Number 2, p.524-30, (1996) AbstractWebsite

A 7Fe ferredoxin, isolated from the marine denitrifier Pseudomonas nautica strain 617, was characterized. The NH2-terminal sequence analysis, performed until residue number 56, shows a high similarity with the 7Fe ferredoxins isolated from Azotobacter vinelandii, Pseudomonas putida, and Pseudomonas stutzeri. EPR and NMR spectroscopies identify the presence of both [3Fe-4S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters, with cysteinyl coordination. The electrochemical studies on [Fe-S] clusters show that a fast diffusion-dominated electron transfer, promoted by Mg(II), takes place between the ferredoxin and the glassy carbon electrode. Square wave voltammetry studies gave access to the electrosynthesis of a 4Fe center formed within the [3Fe-4S] core. The [3Fe-4S] cluster exhibited two reduction potentials at -175 and -680 +/- 10 mV and the [4Fe-4S] cluster was characterized by an unusually low reduction potential of -715 +/- 10 mV, at pH 7.6

Characterization of D. desulfuricans (ATCC 27774) [NiFe] hydrogenase EPR and redox properties of the native and the dihydrogen reacted states, Franco, R., Moura I., Legall J., Peck, H. D. Jr., Huynh B. H., and Moura J. J. , Biochim Biophys Acta, Oct 4, Volume 1144, Number 3, p.302-8, (1993) AbstractWebsite

Redox intermediates of D. desulfuricans ATCC 27774 [NiFe] hydrogenase were generated under dihydrogen. Detailed redox titrations, coupled to EPR measurements, give access to the mid-point redox potentials of the iron-sulfur centers and of the Nickel-B signal that represents the ready form of the enzyme. The interaction between the dihydrogen molecule and the nickel centre was probed by the observation of an isotopic effect on the EPR signals detected in turnover conditions, by comparison of the H2O/H2 and D2O/D2-reacted samples.

Characterization Of Electron-Transfer Proteins From The Nitrogen-Fixing Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio-Desulfuricans Berre-Eau, Fauque, G., Moura I., Xavier A. V., Galliano N., Moura J. J. G., and Legall J. , Biochemical Society Transactions, Dec, Volume 15, Number 6, p.1049-1050, (1987) AbstractWebsite
Characterization of recombinant Desulfovibrio gigas ferredoxin, Rodrigues, P., Graca F., Macedo A. L., Moura I., and Moura J. J. , Biochem Biophys Res Commun, Nov 30, Volume 289, Number 2, p.630-3, (2001) AbstractWebsite

Dg ferredoxin gene was cloned using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), inserted into vector pT7-7, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) grown in aerobic media. The recombinant protein is a dimer and contains a [3Fe-4S] cluster per monomer. EPR and (1)H NMR data of recombinant and wild-type protein are compared.

Characterization of representative enzymes from a sulfate reducing bacterium implicated in the corrosion of steel, Pereira, A. S., Franco R., Feio M. J., Pinto C., Lampreia J., Reis M. A., Calvete J., Moura I., Beech I., Lino A. R., and Moura J. J. , Biochem Biophys Res Commun, Apr 16, Volume 221, Number 2, p.414-21, (1996) AbstractWebsite

This communication reports the isolation, purification and characterization of key enzymes involved in dissimilatory sulfate reduction of a sulfate reducing bacterium classified as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subspecies desulfuricans New Jersey (NCIMB 8313) (Ddd NJ). The chosen strain, originally recovered from a corroding cast iron heat exchanger, was grown in large scale batch cultures. Physico-chemical and spectroscopic studies of the purified enzymes were carried out. These analyses revealed a high degree of similarity between proteins isolated from the DddNJ strain and the homologous proteins obtained from Desulfomicrobium baculatus Norway 4. In view of the results obtained, taxonomic reclassification of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subspecies desulfuricans New Jersey (NCIMB 8313) into Desulfomicrobium baculatus (New Jersey) is proposed.

Characterization of the cytochrome system of a nitrogen-fixing strain of a sulfate-reducing bacterium: Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain Berre-Eau, Moura, I., Fauque G., Legall J., Xavier A. V., and Moura J. J. , Eur J Biochem, Feb 2, Volume 162, Number 3, p.547-54, (1987) AbstractWebsite

Two c-type cytochromes were purified and characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques, from the sulfate-reducer nitrogen-fixing organism, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain Berre-Eau (NCIB 8387). The purification procedures included several chromatographic steps on alumina, carboxymethylcellulose and gel filtration. A tetrahaem and a monohaem cytochrome were identified. The multihaem cytochrome has visible, EPR and NMR spectra with general properties similar to other low-potential bis-histidinyl axially bound haem proteins, belonging to the class of tetrahaem cytochrome c3 isolated from other Desulfovibrio species. The monohaem cytochrome c553 is ascorbate-reducible and its EPR and NMR data are characteristic of a cytochrome with methionine-histidine ligation. Their properties are compared with other homologous proteins isolated from sulfate-reducing bacteria.

Characterization of the Dihemic Cytochrome C549 from the Marine Denitrifying Bacterium Pseudomonas nautica 617, Saraiva, L. M., Besson S., Fauque G., and Moura I. , Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 199, Number 3, p.1289-1296, (1994) AbstractWebsite
Characterization of the interaction between PQQ and heme c in the quinohemoprotein ethanol dehydrogenase from Comamonas testosteroni, de Jong, G. A., Caldeira J., Sun J., Jongejan J. A., de Vries S., Loehr T. M., Moura I., Moura J. J., and Duine J. A. , Biochemistry, Jul 25, Volume 34, Number 29, p.9451-8, (1995) AbstractWebsite

Quinohemoprotein ethanol dehydrogenase from Comamonas testosteroni (QH-EDH) contains two cofactors, 2,7,9-tricarboxy-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-f]quinoline-4,5-dione (PQQ) and heme c. Since previous studies on the kinetics of this enzyme suggested that both participate in electron transfer, spectroscopic investigations were performed of the oxidized and reduced holo- and apoenzyme (without PQQ but with heme c) to reveal the nature of the interaction between the two redox centers. From this it appears that the properties of the heme in the enzyme are affected by the presence of PQQ, as judged from the shift of the maxima in the ultraviolet/visible absorption spectra of the heme moiety in both reduced and oxidized QH-EDH and the 60-mV increase of the heme midpoint redox potential caused by PQQ addition. Also 1H-NMR spectroscopy was indicative for interaction since binding of PQQ induced shifts in the resonances of the methyl groups of the porphyrin ring in the oxidized form of the apoenzyme and a shift in the methionine heme ligand resonance of the reduced form of the apoenzyme. On the other hand, resonance Raman spectra of the heme in the different enzyme forms were nearly similar. These results suggest that a major effect of PQQ binding to apo-QH-EDH is a rotation of the methionine ligand of heme c. Since no intermediate 1H-NMR spectra were observed upon titration of apoenzyme with PQQ, apparently no exchange occurs of PQQ between (oxidized) holo- and apoenzyme at the NMR time scale and at that of the experiment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Characterization of the iron-binding site in mammalian ferrochelatase by kinetic and Mossbauer methods, Franco, R., Moura J. J., Moura I., Lloyd S. G., Huynh B. H., Forbes W. S., and Ferreira G. C. , J Biol Chem, Nov 3, Volume 270, Number 44, p.26352-7, (1995) AbstractWebsite

All organisms utilize ferrochelatase (protoheme ferrolyase, EC to catalyze the terminal step of the heme biosynthetic pathway, which involves the insertion of ferrous ion into protoporphyrin IX. Kinetic methods and Mossbauer spectroscopy have been used in an effort to characterize the ferrous ion-binding active site of recombinant murine ferrochelatase. The kinetic studies indicate that dithiothreitol, a reducing agent commonly used in ferrochelatase activity assays, interferes with the enzymatic production of heme. Ferrochelatase specific activity values determined under strictly anaerobic conditions are much greater than those obtained for the same enzyme under aerobic conditions and in the presence of dithiothreitol. Mossbauer spectroscopy conclusively demonstrates that, under the commonly used assay conditions, dithiothreitol chelates ferrous ion and hence competes with the enzyme for binding the ferrous substrate. Mossbauer spectroscopy of ferrous ion incubated with ferrochelatase in the absence of dithiothreitol shows a somewhat broad quadrupole doublet. Spectral analysis indicates that when 0.1 mM Fe(II) is added to 1.75 mM ferrochelatase, the overwhelming majority of the added ferrous ion is bound to the protein. The spectroscopic parameters for this bound species are delta = 1.36 +/- 0.03 mm/s and delta EQ = 3.04 +/- 0.06 mm/s, distinct from the larger delta EQ of a control sample of Fe(II) in buffer only. The parameters for the bound species are consistent with an active site composed of nitrogenous/oxygenous ligands and inconsistent with the presence of sulfur ligands. This finding is in accord with the absence of conserved cysteines among the known ferrochelatase sequences. The implications these results have with regard to the mechanism of ferrochelatase activity are discussed.

Characterization of two dissimilatory sulfite reductases (desulforubidin and desulfoviridin) from the sulfate-reducing bacteria. Moessbauer and EPR studies, Moura, I., Legall J., Lino A. R., Peck H. D., Fauque G., Xavier A. V., Dervartanian D. V., Moura J. J. G., and Huynh B. H. , Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1988/02/17, Volume 110, Number 4, p.1075-1082, (1988) AbstractWebsite
Characterization of two dissimilatory sulfite reductases from sulfate-reducing bacteria, Huynh, B. H., Moura I., Lino A. R., Moura J. J. G., and Legall J. , Hyperfine Interactions, 1988, Volume 42, Number 1-4, p.905-908, (1988) AbstractWebsite
Characterization of two dissimilatory sulfite reductases from sulfate-reducing bacteria, Huynh, B., Moura I., Lino A., Moura J., and Legall J. , Hyperfine Interactions, Volume 42, Number 1, p.905-908, (1988) AbstractWebsite

Mössbauer, EPR, and biochemical techniques were used to characterize two dissimilatory sulfite reductases: desulforubidin from Desulfovibrio baculatus strain DSM 1743 and desulfoviridin from Desulfovibrio gigas . For each molecule of desulforubidin, there are two sirohemes and four [4Fe−4S] clusters. The [4Fe−4S] clusters are in the diamagnetic 2+ oxidation state. The sirohemes are high-spin ferric (S=5/2) and each siroheme is exchanged-coupled to a [4Fe−4S] 2+ cluster. Such an exchange-coupled siroheme-[4Fe−4S] unit has also been found in the assimilatory sulfite reductase from Escherichia coli /1/ and in a low-molecular weight sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris /2/. For each molecule of defulfoviridin, there are two tetrahydroporphyrin groups and four [4Fe−4S] 2+ clusters. To our surprise, we discovered that about 80% of the tetrahydroporphyrin groups, however, do not bind iron.

Chromatographic-based methods for pesticide determination in honey: An overview, Rial-Otero, R., Gaspar E. M., Moura I., and Capelo J. L. , Talanta, Feb 15, Volume 71, Number 2, p.503-514, (2007) AbstractWebsite

Nowadays the control of pesticides in honey is an issue of primary health importance as consequence of the increasing content of these chemicals in the aforementioned matrix. This poisoning has led to the worldwide increasing loss of bees since 1995. From Europe to Canada, scientist, beekeepers and chemical companies disagree about the reasons that have led to colony losses higher than 50% in some areas. This problem has become a public health issue due to the high honey worldwide consumption. The presence of pesticides in honey has been directly related to bees' mortality by some researchers through pesticide presence in (1) pollen, (2) honeycomb walls, (3) own bees and (4) honey. In this work we describe the actual state-of-the-art for pesticides determination in honey along with a review in this subject focused on sample treatments and instrumentation. Finally, future trends are also commented. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chromosome aberrations in cattle raised on bracken fern pasture, Moura, J. W., Stocco dos Santos R. C., Dagli M. L., D'Angelino J. L., Birgel E. H., and Becak W. , Experientia, Sep 15, Volume 44, Number 9, p.785-8, (1988) AbstractWebsite

Thirteen cows maintained on natural bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) were analyzed cytogenetically. The frequency of structural chromosome aberrations detected in peripheral blood cells was significantly higher when compared to that detected in animals raised on pasture containing no bracken fern. We discuss the clastogenic action of fern and its synergistic action with infection by type 2 and 4 papilloma virus in the same animals.

Cloning, sequencing and overexpression of the Desulfovibrio gigas ferredoxin gene in E. coli, Chen, B., Menon N. K., Dervertarnian L., Moura J. J., and Przybyla A. E. , FEBS Lett, Sep 12, Volume 351, Number 3, p.401-4, (1994) AbstractWebsite

We have cloned the gene encoding Desulfovibrio gigas ferredoxin using a photodigoxigenin-labelled probe synthesized with the polymerase chain reaction. The DNA sequence of the gene predicts a polypeptide of 58 residues after removal of the initial formyl methionine (polypeptide M(r) = 6,276). The ferredoxin gene was expressed in aerobically grown E. coli behind the lac promoter of pUC18 resulting in a high level of ferredoxin expression which comprises about 10% of the total cell protein. EPR analysis of recombinant ferredoxin revealed the presence of a [3Fe-4S] cluster which is characteristic of native D. gigas ferredoxin II.

Cobalt containing B12 cofactors from methanogenic bacteria - spectroscopic characterization, Lino, A. R., Xavier A. V., Moura I., Legall J., and Ljungdahl P. O. , Rev Portuguesa de Química, Volume 27, p.175-177, (1985) Abstract