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Bianchi, C, Ferreira LM, Loureiro J, Rodrigues A, Duarte P, Baptista AC, Ferreira IM.  2016.  Vanadium Pentoxide Alloyed with Graphite for Thin-Film Thermal Sensors, Mar. Journal of Electronic Materials. 45:1987–1991., Number 3 AbstractWebsite

The thermoelectric (TE) properties of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) alloyed with graphite (G) were studied as a function of its incorporation percentage. Variable weight percentages of graphite powder (0–50{%}) were added to V2O5 powder and their mixtures were evaporated by a thermal evaporation technique to form thin films with a thickness in the range of 30–80 nm. In the infrared wavelength region, the transmittance of the obtained films increased as the G percentage was increased, while in the visible range, it decreased with G up to 10{%}. The TE properties were improved when G was in the range of 10–30{%}, while it decreased for the other percentages: Seebeck coefficient (S) changed from 0.6 mV/K to 0.9 mV/K and was zero with a G of 50{%}; the electrical conductivity varied slightly from 5 ($Ømega$m)−1 to 0.7 ($Ømega$m)−1 while the mobility improved from 0.07 cm2/V s to 1.5 cm2/V s and the respective carrier concentration was reduced, from 1 × 1018 cm−3 to 4 × 1016 cm−3. These films were applied as temperature sensors evaluating the thermovoltage as a function of thermal gradient between two electrodes, in which one was maintained at room temperature.