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Figueira, J, Loureiro J, Marques J, Bianchi C, Duarte P, Ruoho M, Tittonen I, Ferreira I.  2017.  Optimization of Cuprous Oxides Thin Films to be used as Thermoelectric Touch Detectors. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 9:6520-6529., Number 7 AbstractWebsite

The electronic and optical properties of p-type copper oxides (CO) strongly depend on the production technique as it influences the obtained phases: cuprous oxide (Cu2O) or cupric oxide (CuO), the most common ones. Cu films deposited by thermal evaporation have been annealed in air atmosphere, with temperature between 225 and 375 °C and time between 1 and 4 h. The resultant CO films have been studied to understand the influence of processing parameters in the thermoelectric, electrical, optical, morphological, and structural properties. Films with a Cu2O single phase are formed when annealing at 225 °C, while CuO single phase films can be obtained at 375 °C. In between, both phases are obtained in proportions that depend on the film thickness and annealing time. The positive sign of the Seebeck coefficient (S), measured at room temperature (RT), confirms the p-type behavior of both oxides, showing values up to 1.2 mV·°C–1 and conductivity up to 2.9 (Ω·m)−1. A simple detector using Cu2O have been fabricated and tested with fast finger touch events.