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Dias, D, Lapa N, Bernardo M, Ribeiro W, Matos I, Fonseca I, Pinto F.  2018.  Cr(III) removal from synthetic and industrial wastewaters by using co-gasification chars of rice waste streams. Bioresource Technology. 266:139-150. AbstractWebsite

Blends of rice waste streams were submitted to co-gasification assays. The resulting chars (G1C and G2C) were characterized and used in Cr(III) removal assays from a synthetic solution. A Commercial Activated Carbon (CAC) was used for comparison purposes. The chars were non-porous materials mainly composed by ashes (68.3–92.6% w/w). The influences of adsorbent loading (solid/liquid ratio – S/L) and initial pH in Cr(III) removal were tested. G2C at a S/L of 5 mg L−1 and an initial pH of 4.50 presented an uptake capacity significantly higher than CAC (7.29 and 2.59 mg g−1, respectively). G2C was used in Cr(III) removal assays from an industrial wastewater with Cr(III) concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg L−1. Cr(III) removal by precipitation (uptake capacity ranging from 11.1 to 14.9 mg g−1) was more effective in G2C, while adsorption (uptake capacity of 16.1 mg g−1) was the main removal mechanism in CAC.

Nogueira, M, Matos I, Bernardo M, Pinto F, Lapa N, Surra E, Fonseca I.  2019.  Char from Spent Tire Rubber: A Potential Adsorbent of Remazol Yellow Dye. C—Journal of Carbon Research. 5, Number 4 AbstractWebsite

A char produced from spent tire rubber showed very promising results as an adsorbent of Remazol Yellow (RY) from aqueous solutions. Spent tire rubber was submitted to a pyrolysis process optimized for char production. The obtained char was submitted to chemical, physical, and textural characterizations and, subsequently, applied as a low-cost adsorbent for dye (RY) removal in batch adsorption assays. The obtained char was characterized by relatively high ash content (12.9% wt), high fixed-carbon content (69.7% wt), a surface area of 69 m2/g, and total pore volume of 0.14 cm3/g. Remazol Yellow kinetic assays and modelling of the experimental data using the pseudo-first and pseudo-second order kinetic models demonstrated a better adjustment to the pseudo-first order model with a calculated uptake capacity of 14.2 mg RY/g char. From the equilibrium assays, the adsorption isotherm was fitted to both Langmuir and Freundlich models; it was found a better fit for the Langmuir model to the experimental data, indicating a monolayer adsorption process with a monolayer uptake capacity of 11.9 mg RY/g char. Under the experimental conditions of the adsorption assays, the char presented positive charges at its surface, able to attract the deprotonated sulfonate groups (SO3−) of RY; therefore, electrostatic attraction was considered the most plausible mechanism for dye removal.