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Ferreira, IMPLVO, Eça R, Pinho O, Tavares P, Pereira A, Roque AC.  2007.  Development and Validation of an HPLC/UV Method for Quantification of Bioactive Peptides in Fermented Milks. Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies. 30:2139–2147., Number 14 Abstract

The simultaneous separation and quantification of two casein peptides {(IPP}, {VPP)} presenting potent inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting-enzyme {(ACE)} and casein in fermented milks was developed. Gradient elution was carried out at a flow-rate of 1 {mL/min}, using a mixture of two solvents. Solvent A was 0.1% {TFA} in water and solvent B was acetonitrile-water-trifluoracetic acid 95:5:0.1. The effluent was monitored by {UV} detector at 214 nm. Calibration curves were constructed in the interval of 0.01-1.0 {mg/mL} for {VPP}, 0.005-1.0 {mg/mL} for {IPP}, and 0.05-3.0 {mg/mL} for casein. R2 invariably exceeded 0.999. The detection limits were 0.004 for {VPP}, 0.002 {mg/mL} for {IPP}, and 0.02 {mg/mL} for casein. Repeatability of the method was evaluated by six consecutive injections of two standard solutions containing {VPP}, {IPP}, and casein. The {RSD} values for concentration were all below 5.08%. Recovery studies were carried out to determine the accuracy of the method. Recoveries ranged between 88 and 98.2%. The methodology was applied, not only, for the monitorization of {VPP}, {IPP}, and casein in commercial fermented milks labeled as presenting antihypertensive properties, but also, in milk with different degrees of fermentation by L. Helveticus, and in other commercial functional fermented milks, such as, those presenting cholesterol lowering properties.

Roque, ACA, Lowe CR.  2007.  Rationally designed ligands for use in Affinity Chromatography: An artificial Protein L. Affinity Chromatography: Methods and Protocols. (M. Zachariou, Ed.).:93-110., U.S.A.: Humana Press Inc. Abstract

Synthetic affinity ligands can circumvent the drawbacks of natural immunoglobulin (Ig)-binding proteins by imparting resistance to chemical and biochemical degradation and to in situ sterilization, as well as ease and low cost of production. Protein L (PpL), isolated from Peptostreptococcus magnus strains, interacts with the Fab (antigen-binding fragment) portion of Igs, specifically with kappa light chains, and represents an almost universal ligand for the purification of antibodies. The concepts of rational design and solid-phase combinatorial chemistry were used for the discovery of a synthetic PpL mimic affinity ligand. The procedure presented in this chapter represents a general approach with the potential to be applied to different systems and target proteins.