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Batalha, ÍL, Roque ACA.  2016.  Petasis-Ugi ligands: New affinity tools for the enrichment of phosphorylated peptides. Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences. 1031:86–93.: Elsevier B.V. AbstractWebsite

Affinity chromatography is a widespread technique for the enrichment and isolation of biologics, which relies on the selective and reversible interaction between affinity ligands and target molecules. Small synthetic affinity ligands are valuable alternatives due to their robustness, low cost and fast ligand development. This work reports, for the first time, the use of a sequential Petasis-Ugi multicomponent reaction to generate rationally designed solid-phase combinatorial libraries of small synthetic ligands, which can be screened for the selection of new affinity adsorbents towards biological targets. As a proof of concept, the Petasis-Ugi reaction was here employed in the discovery of affinity ligands suitable for phosphopeptide enrichment. A combinatorial library of 84 ligands was designed, synthesized on a chromatographic solid support and screened in situ for the specific binding of phosphopeptides binding human BRCA1C-terminal domains. The success of the reaction on the chromatographic matrix was confirmed by both inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Three lead ligands were identified due to their superior performance in terms of binding capacity and selectivity towards the phosphorylated moiety on peptides, which showed the feasibility of the Petasis-Ugi reaction for affinity ligand development.

Batalha, ÍL, Roque ACA.  2016.  Phosphopeptide Enrichment Using Various Magnetic Nanocomposites: An Overview. Phospho-Proteomics. 1355(Methods in Molecular Biology):193–209. AbstractWebsite

Magnetic nanocomposites are hybrid structures consisting of an iron oxide (Fe3O4 /$\gamma$-Fe2O3 ) superparamagnetic core and a coating shell which presents affi nity for a specifi c target molecule. Within the scope of phosphopeptide enrichment, the magnetic core is usually fi rst functionalized with an intermediate layer of silica or carbon to improve dispersibility and increase specifi c area, and then with an outer layer of a phosphate-affi nity material. Fe3O4 -coating materials include metal oxides, rare earth metal-based compounds, immobilized-metal ions, polymers, and many others. This chapter provides a generic overview of the different materials that can be found in literature and their advantages and drawbacks.

Batalha, IL, Lowe CR, Roque ACA.  2012.  Platforms for enrichment of phosphorylated proteins and peptides in proteomics. Trends in Biotechnology. 30(2):100-110. AbstractWebsite

Protein phosphorylation is a complex and highly dynamic process involved in numerous biological events. Abnormal phosphorylation is one of the underlying mechanisms for the development of cancer and metabolic disorders. The identification and absolute quantification of specific phospho-signatures can help elucidate protein functions in signaling pathways and facilitate the development of new and personalized diagnostic and therapeutic tools. This review presents a variety of strategies currently utilized for the enrichment of phosphorylated proteins and peptides before mass spectrometry analysis during proteomic studies. The investigation of specific affinity reagents, allied to the integration of different enrichment processes, is triggering the development of more selective, rapid and cost-effective high-throughput automated platforms.

Borlido, L, Azevedo AM, Roque ACA, Aires-Barros MR.  2011.  Potential of boronic acid functionalized magnetic particles in the adsorption of human antibodies under mammalian cell culture conditions. Journal of Chromatography A. 1218(43):7821-7827. AbstractWebsite

In this work, we systematically evaluated the potential of using boronic acid functionalized magnetic particles in the capturing of human immunoglobulin G under typical mammalian cell culture conditions. For comparison, Protein A coated magnetic particles were also used. The binding pH was found to significantly influence the adsorption isotherms of boronic acid particles with the higher capacities (0.216 g IgG/g support) being observed at pH 7.4. Comparatively, this value was 0.109 g IgG/g support, for Protein A particles under the same conditions. Both particles revealed very fast adsorption kinetics with more than 70% of the maximum binding capacity being achieved in a few seconds. The effect of glucose and lactate, which are known to interact with boronic acid, was evaluated. For glucose, the binding capacity was significantly influenced by the pH and decreased as pH increased. At pH 9.5, a 70% lower binding capacity was observed for glucose concentrations as low as 0.5 g/l. The effect of lactate was less pronounced and almost pH independent reaching at most 20% decrease in binding capacity. Nevertheless, the effect of both molecules was always lower at pH 7.4. The optimization of the elution conditions enabled complete recovery of bound IgG from boronic acid particles using 50mM Tris-HCl, 200 mM sorbitol, 200 mM NaCl at pH 8.5.

Barroso, T, Temtem M, Hussain A, Aguiar-Ricardo A, Roque ACA.  2010.  Preparation and characterization of a cellulose affinity membrane for human immunoglobulin G (IgG) purification, feb. Journal of Membrane Science. 348:224–230., Number 1-2 AbstractWebsite

This paper reports the design, preparation and characterization of cellulose affinity membranes for antibody purification using a new methodology. Cellulose membranes were prepared from polymer-ionic liquid solutions, namely 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride {([BMIM][Cl])}, by the water induced phase inversion process. After functionalization with a synthetic ligand 2-(3-aminophenol)-6-(4-amino-1-naphthol)-4-chloro-s-triazine (ligand 22/8), these were evaluated as affinity supports for human immunoglobulin G {(IgG).} Membranes were characterized in terms of morphology {(SEM)}, porosity (mercury porosimetry), hydrophilicity (contact angle measurement), transport properties (permeability) and mechanical performance {(DMA).} Membranes prepared with varying cellulose contents (5 and 10&\#xa0;wt.% cellulose in ionic liquid solutions) lead to films with different properties. The 10&\#xa0;wt.% cellulose membrane presented enhanced morphological and mechanical properties, however, the morphology of this membrane was significantly altered after ligand coupling. Adsorption isotherms for human {IgG} onto 10&\#xa0;wt.% matrix activated with ligand 22/8 were obtained. Preliminary results showed that the bovine serum albumin {(BSA)}, a model impurity, did not adsorb onto the membrane while up to 6&\#xa0;mg {IgG/g} was bound and 2&\#xa0;mg {IgG/g} recovered.

Barbosa, AJM, Oliveira AR, Roque ACA.  2018.  Protein- and Peptide-Based Biosensors in Artificial Olfaction. Trends in Biotechnology. 36(12):1244-1258. AbstractPDFWebsite

Animals’ olfactory systems rely on proteins, olfactory receptors (ORs) and
odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), as their native sensing units to detect odours.
Recent advances demonstrate that these proteins can also be employed as
molecular recognition units in gas-phase biosensors. In addition, the interactions
between odorant molecules and ORs or OBPs are a source of inspiration
for designing peptides with tunable odorant selectivity. We review recent
progress in gas biosensors employing biological units (ORs, OBPs, and peptides)
in light of future developments in artificial olfaction, emphasizing examples
where biological components have been employed to detect gas-phase

Alves, BM, Borlido L, Rosa SASL, Silva MFF, Aires-Barros MR, Roque ACA, Azevedo AM.  2015.  Purification of human antibodies from animal cell cultures using gum arabic coated magnetic particles. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology. 90:838–846., Number 5: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND The emergence of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as new biopharmaceutical products requires the development of new purification methods that are not only effective but are able to reduce production costs. To address the problematic recovery of mAbs, gum arabic (GA) coated magnetic particles (MPs) were used for the purification of human antibodies from animal cells supernatants. RESULTS MPs were synthesized via co-precipitation and exhibited a spherical-like physical aspect, with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 473 nm and a zeta potential of –26 mV. The adsorption and elution of IgG on these adsorbents was thoroughly studied. Adsorption of human IgG was enhanced at pH 6, for which a qmax of 244 mg IgG g−1 MPs and Kd of 25 mg L−1 were obtained. Increasing salt concentrations at a basic pH (1 mol L−1 NaCl at pH 11) were found to improve the elution of bound IgG. The MPs were challenged with an artificial protein mixture containing human IgG, albumin, insulin and apo-transferrin. An overall yield of 84% was achieved, retrieving 92% of bound IgG. CONCLUSIONS MPs were successfully used for the capture of monoclonal antibodies from two distinct mammalian cell cultures, a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and a hybridoma cell culture supernatants. The elution yields were high, ranging between 84% and 94%, with overall yields ranging from 72% to 88%. Final purities of 85% were reached for hybridoma cell supernatants. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry

Matos, MJB, Trovão F, Gonçalves J, Rothbauer U, Freire MG, Barbosa AMJB, Pina AS, Roque ACA.  2021.  A purification platform for antibodies and derived fragments using a de novo designed affinity adsorbent. Separation and Purification Technology. 265