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1997
Salgueiro, CA, Turner DL, Legall J, Xavier AV, Legall J.  1997.  Reevaluation of the redox and redox-Bohr cooperativity in tetrahaem Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Miyazaki F) cytochrome c3. Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry. 2(3):343-349. AbstractWebsite

The thermodynamic model of five interacting charge centres (four haems and an ionisable centre), which was used in the characterisation of the thermodynamic properties of Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) cytochrome c3 (c3DvH), is now used to reevaluate the thermodynamic properties in Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Miyazaki F) cytochrome c3 (c3DvM) on the basis of published data (Park, J.-S., Ohmura, T., Kano, K., Sagara, T., Niki, K., Kyogoku, Y. and Akutsu, H. (1996) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1293, 45–54). Contrary to the assertion of Park et al. (1996), the pH dependence of the proton chemical shifts of haem methyls in c3DvM in several stages of oxidation is well described by the model, which involves both homotropic (e–/e–) and heterotropic (e–/H+) cooperativity. This shows that the pH dependence observed for c3DvM is not significantly more complicated than that observed for c3DvH. Since the parameters which we now obtain for c3DvM are generated with the same model as those from c3DvH, albeit using less precise data, it is possible to make a preliminary comparison of the thermodynamic properties of these two proteins and of their role in energy transduction.
The extrinsic dipolar shifts generated for each methyl group by each of the four haems in c3DvM are also determined. A novel method for approximating the magnetic susceptibility tensors is used: the orientations of the principal axes of the tensors have been shown to be closely related to the geometry of the axial ligands, which is available from the X-ray structure of c3DvM, and the components of the tensors are extrapolated from EPR g values. The inclusion of the calculated haem extrinsic contributions clearly describes the pH dependence of the haem methyls in the core of the protein, close to other haems. This description is most remarkable in the case of the haem methyl 21CH3 II I, for which the "unusual pH dependence" commented on by Park et al. (1996) is easily explained using the thermodynamic parameters determined by our model together with the calculated extrinsic dipolar shifts, thus providing a test of the analysis.

Salgueiro, CA, Turner DL, Xavier AV.  1997.  Use of Paramagnetic NMR Probes for Structural Analysis in Cytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio Vulgaris. European Journal of Biochemistry. 244(3):721-734. AbstractWebsite

The dipolar field generated by each of the four haems in the tetrahaem ferricytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) (c3DvH) is determined by means of a novel procedure. In this method the 13C chemical shifts of the nuclei directly bound to the haems are used to determine the in-plane orientations of the rhombic perturbation in each of the four haems with respect to a model of molecular orbitals of eg symmetry which are subject to a rhombic perturbation [Turner, D. L., Salgueiro, C. A., Schenkels, P., LeGall, J. & Xavier, A. V. (1995) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1246, 24–28]. These orientations, together with the components of the magnetic susceptibility tensors obtained from the EPR g values and the crystal structure of c3DvH, can be used to calculate the dipolar shifts induced by each haem throughout the protein. Thus the observed 13C paramagnetic shifts of the c3DvH haem substituents were fitted considering both the pseudocontact and contact shifts of each haem simultaneously. The dipolar shifts calculated by this method were tested against the observed dipolar shifts for some amino acid residues strategically placed in the protein and also for the haem propionate groups. The effect of considering the calculated dipolar extrinsic shifts on the behaviour of the chemical shifts of the haem methyl groups in the intermediate stages of oxidation at different pH values was also analysed. The several tests applied to the calculated dipolar shifts have shown that the method is extremely useful for predicting chemical shifts as an aid to complete proton assignment, and to add further constraints in the refinement of solution structures of paramagnetic proteins and hence to probe subtle structural rearrangements around the haem pocket.

1996
Turner, DL, Salgueiro CA, Catarino T, Legall J, Xavier AV.  1996.  NMR Studies of Cooperativity in the Tetrahaem Cytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio vulgaris. European Journal of Biochemistry. 241(3):723-731. AbstractWebsite

The thermodynamic properties of the Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) tetrahaem cytochrome c3 (Dvc3) are rationalised by a model which involves both homotropic (e−/e−) and heterotropic (e−/H+) cooperativity. The paramagnetic shifts of a methyl group from each haem of the DVc3 have been determined in each stage of oxidation at several pH values by means of two-dimensional exchange NMR. The thermodynamic parameters are obtained by fitting the model to the NMR data and to redox titrations followed by visible spectroscopy. They show significant positive cooperativity between two of the haems whereas the remaining interactions appear to be largely electrostatic in origin. These parameters imply that the protein undergoes a proton-assisted two-electron transfer which can be used for energy transduction. Comparison with the crystal structure together with measurement of the kinetics of proton exchange suggest that the pH dependence is mediated by a charged residue(s) readily acessible to the solvent and close to haem I.

Louro, RO, Catarino T, Salgueiro CA, Legall J, Xavier AV.  1996.  Redox-Bohr effect in the tetrahaem cytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio vulgaris: a model for energy transduction mechanisms. Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry. 1(1):34-38. AbstractWebsite

Using potentiometric titrations, two protons were found to participate in the redox-Bohr effect observed for cytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough). Within the framework of the thermodynamic model previously presented, this finding supports the occurrence of a concerted proton-assisted 2e– step, ideally suited for the coupling role of cytochrome c3 to hydrogenase. Furthermore, at physiological pH, it is shown that when sulfate-reducing bacteria use H2 as energy source, cytochrome c3 can be used as a charge separation device, achieving energy transduction by energising protons which can be left in the acidic periplasmic side and transferring deenergised electrons to sulfate respiration. This mechanism for energy transduction, using a full thermodynamic data set, is compared to that put forward to explain the proton-pumping function of cytochrome c oxidase.

Saraiva, LM, Salgueiro CA, Legall J, van Dongen WMAM, Xavier AV.  1996.  Site-directed mutagenesis of a phenylalanine residue strictly conserved in cytochromes c3. Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry. 1(6):542-550. AbstractWebsite

Reduction of the haems in tetrahaem cytochromes c3 is a cooperative process, i.e., reduction of each of the haems depends on the redox states of the other haems. Furthermore, electron transfer is coupled to proton transfer (redox-Bohr effect). Two of its haems and a strictly conserved nearby phenylalanine residue, F20, in Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) cytochrome c3 form a structural motif that is present in all cytochromes c3 and also in cytochrome c oxidase. A putative role for this phenylalanine residue in the cooperativity of haem reduction was investigated. Therefore, this phenylalanine was replaced, with genetic techniques, by isoleucine and tyrosine in D. vulgaris (Hildenborough) cytochrome c3. Cyclic voltammetry studies revealed a small increase (30 mV) in one of the macroscopic redox potentials in the mutated cytochromes. EPR showed that the main alterations occurred in the vicinity of haem I, the haem closest to residue 20 and one of the haems responsible for positive cooperativities in electron transfer of D. vulgaris cytochrome c3. NMR studies of F20I cytochrome c3 demonstrated that the haem core architecture is maintained and that the more affected haem proton groups are those near the mutation site. NMR redox titrations of this mutated protein gave evidence for only small changes in the relative redox potentials of the haems. However, electron/electron and proton/electron cooperativity are maintained, indicating that this aromatic residue has no essential role in these processes. Furthermore, chemical modification of the N-terminal amino group of cytochrome c3 backbone, which is also very close to haem I, had no effect on the network of cooperativities.

1995
Turner, DL, Salgueiro CA, Schenkels P, Legall J, Xavier AV.  1995.  Carbon-13 NMR studies of the influence of axial ligand orientation on haem electronic structure. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology. 1246(1):24-28. AbstractWebsite

Three-quarters of the carbon-13 resonances of nuclei attached to the four haems of Desulfovibrio vulgaris ferricytochrome c3 are assigned. Preliminary analysis of their Fermi contact interactions shows that the shifts are directly related to the orientation of both of the axial histidine ligands in each case and the approach can therefore be used to obtain structural information in other cytochromes with bis-histidinyl coordination. The implications for the control of redox potential in cytochromes are discussed.

1994
Turner, DL, Salgueiro CA, Catarino T, Legall J, Xavier AV.  1994.  Homotropic and heterotropic cooperativity in the tetrahaem cytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics. 1187(2):232-235. AbstractWebsite

The thermodynamic parameters which govern the homotropic (e−/e−) and heterotropic (e−/H+) cooperativity in the tetrahaem cytochrome c3 isolated from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) were determined, using the paramagnetic shifts of haem methyl groups in the NMR spectra of intermediate oxidized states at different pH levels. A model is put forward to explain how the network of positive and negative cooperativities between the four haems and acid/base group(s) enables the protein to achieve a proton-assisted 2e− step.

1992
Salgueiro, CA, Turner DL, Santos H, Legall J, Xavier AV.  1992.  Assignment of the redox potentials to the four haems in Desulfovibrio vulgaris cytochrome c3 by 2D-NMR. FEBS Letters. 314(2):155-158. AbstractWebsite

Using 2D-NMR the four haems of Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) cytochromes, within the X-ray structure were fully cross-assigned according to their redox potential. The strategy used was based on a complete network of chemical exchange connectivities between the NMR signals obtained for all oxidation levels to the corresponding ones in the fully reduced spectrum [1992, Eur. J. Biochem., in press]. This unequivocal cross-assignment disagrees within earlier results obtained for the similar protein from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Miyazaki F.) [1991, FEBS Lett. 285, 149–151]

Turner, DL, Salgueiro CA, Legall J, Xavier AV.  1992.  Structural studies of Desulfovibrio vulgaris ferrocytochrome c3 by two-dimensional NMR. European Journal of Biochemistry. 210(3):931-936. AbstractWebsite

Two-dimensional NMR has been used to make specific assignments for the four haems in Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) ferrocytochrome c3 and to determine their haem core architecture. The NMR signals from the haem protons were assigned according to type using two-dimensional NMR experiments which led to four sets of signals, one for each of the haems. Specific assignments were obtained by calculating the ring current shifts which arise from other haems and aromatic residues. Observation of interhaem NOEs confirmed the assignments and established that the relative orientation of the haems is identical to that found in the crystal structure of D. vulgaris (Miyazaki F.) ferricytochrome c3. Assignments were also made for all the aromatic residues except for the haem ligands and F20, which is shifted under the main envelope of signals. The NOEs observed between these aromatic protons and haem protons confirm the similarity between the structures in solution and in the crystal. The assignments reported here are the basis for the cross-assignments of the four microscopic haem redox potentials to specific haems in the protein structure.