Publications

Export 104 results:
Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year  (Desc)]
2013
Morgado, L, Dantas JM, Simões T, Londer YY, Pokkuluri PR, Salgueiro CA.  2013.  Role of Met58 in the regulation of electron/proton transfer in trihaem cytochrome PpcA from Geobacter sulfurreducens. Bioscience Reports. 33(1):11-22. AbstractWebsite

The bacterium Gs (Geobacter sulfurreducens) is capable of oxidizing a large variety of compounds relaying electrons out of the cytoplasm and across the membranes in a process designated as extracellular electron transfer. The trihaem cytochrome PpcA is highly abundant in Gs and is most probably the reservoir of electrons destined for the outer surface. In addition to its role in electron transfer pathways, we have previously shown that this protein could perform e-/H+ energy transduction. This mechanism is achieved by selecting the specific redox states that the protein can access during the redox cycle and might be related to the formation of proton electrochemical potential gradient across the periplasmic membrane. The regulatory role of haem III in the functional mechanism of PpcA was probed by replacing Met58, a residue that controls the solvent accessibility of haem III, with serine, aspartic acid, asparagine or lysine. The data obtained from the mutants showed that the preferred e-/H+ transfer pathway observed for PpcA is strongly dependent on the reduction potential of haem III. It is striking to note that one residue can fine tune the redox states that can be accessed by the trihaem cytochrome enough to alter the functional pathways.

Dantas, JM, Morgado L, Pokkuluri PR, Turner DL, Salgueiro CA.  2013.  Solution structure of a mutant of the triheme cytochrome PpcA from Geobacter sulfurreducens sheds light on the role of the conserved aromatic residue F15. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics. 1827(4):484-492. AbstractWebsite

Extracellular electron transfer is one of the physiological hallmarks of Geobacteraceae. Most of the Geobacter species encode for more than 100 c-type cytochromes which are, in general, poorly conserved between individual species. An exception to this is the PpcA family of periplasmic triheme c-type cytochromes, which are the most abundant proteins in these bacteria. The functional characterization of PpcA showed that it has the necessary properties to couple electron/proton transfer, a fundamental step for ATP synthesis. The detailed thermodynamic characterization of a PpcA mutant, in which the strictly conserved residue phenylalanine 15 was replaced by leucine, showed that the global redox network of cooperativities among heme groups is altered, preventing the mutant from performing a concerted electron/proton transfer. In this work, we determined the solution structure of PpcA F15L mutant in the fully reduced state using NMR spectroscopy by producing 15N-labeled protein. In addition, pH-dependent conformational changes were mapped onto the structure. The mutant structure obtained is well defined, with an average pairwise root-mean-square deviation of 0.36 Å for the backbone atoms and 1.14 Å for all heavy atoms. Comparison between the mutant and wild-type structures elucidated the contribution of phenylalanine 15 in the modulation of the functional properties of PpcA.

2012
Morgado, L, Dantas JM, Bruix M, Londer YY, Salgueiro CA.  2012.  Fine Tuning of Redox Networks on Multiheme Cytochromes from Geobacter sulfurreducens Drives Physiological Electron/Proton Energy Transduction. Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications. 2012(Article ID 298739):1-9. AbstractWebsite

The bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens (Gs) can grow in the presence of extracellular terminal acceptors, a property that is currently explored to harvest electricity from aquatic sediments and waste organic matter into microbial fuel cells. A family composed of five triheme cytochromes (PpcA-E) was identified in Gs. These cytochromes play a crucial role by bridging the electron transfer from oxidation of cytoplasmic donors to the cell exterior and assisting the reduction of extracellular terminal acceptors. The detailed thermodynamic characterization of such proteins showed that PpcA and PpcD have an important redox-Bohr effect that might implicate these proteins in the e−/H+ coupling mechanisms to sustain cellular growth. The physiological relevance of the redox-Bohr effect in these proteins was studied by determining the fractional contribution of each individual redox-microstate at different pH values. For both proteins, oxidation progresses from a particular protonated microstate to a particular deprotonated one, over specific pH ranges. The preferred e−/H+ transfer pathway established by the selected microstates indicates that both proteins are functionally designed to couple e−/H+ transfer at the physiological pH range for cellular growth.

Morgado, L, Fernandes AP, Dantas JM, Silva MA, Salgueiro CA.  2012.  On the road to improve the bioremediation and electricity-harvesting skills of Geobacter sulfurreducens: functional and structural characterization of multihaem cytochromes. Biochemical Society transactions. 40(6):1295-1301. AbstractWebsite

Extracellular electron transfer is one of the physiological hallmarks of Geobacter sulfurreducens, allowing these bacteria to reduce toxic and/or radioactive metals and grow on electrode surfaces. Aiming to functionally optimize the respiratory electron-transfer chains, such properties can be explored through genetically engineered strains. Geobacter species comprise a large number of different multihaem c-type cytochromes involved in the extracellular electron-transfer pathways. The functional characterization of multihaem proteins is particularly complex because of the coexistence of several microstates in solution, connecting the fully reduced and oxidized states. NMR spectroscopy has been used to monitor the stepwise oxidation of each individual haem and thus to obtain information on each microstate. For the structural study of these proteins, a cost-effective isotopic labelling of the protein polypeptide chains was combined with the comparative analysis of 1H-13C HSQC (heteronuclear single-quantum correlation) NMR spectra obtained for labelled and unlabelled samples. These new methodological approaches allowed us to study G. sulfurreducens haem proteins functionally and structurally, revealing functional mechanisms and key residues involved in their electron-transfer capabilities. Such advances can now be applied to the design of engineered haem proteins to improve the bioremediation and electricity-harvesting skills of G. sulfurreducens.

Dantas, JM, Morgado L, Londer YY, Fernandes AP, Louro RO, Pokkuluri PR, Schiffer M, Salgueiro CA.  2012.  Pivotal role of the strictly conserved aromatic residue F15 in the cytochrome c7 family. Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry. 17(1):11-24. AbstractWebsite

Cytochromes c7 are periplasmic triheme proteins that have been reported exclusively in δ-proteobacteria. The structures of five triheme cytochromes identified in Geobacter sulfurreducens and one in Desulfuromonas acetoxidans have been determined. In addition to the hemes and axial histidines, a single aromatic residue is conserved in all these proteins - phenylalanine 15 (F15). PpcA is a member of the G. sulfurreducens cytochrome c7 family that performs electron/proton energy transduction in addition to electron transfer that leads to the reduction of extracellular electron acceptors. For the first time we probed the role of the F15 residue in the PpcA functional mechanism, by replacing this residue with the aliphatic leucine by site-directed mutagenesis. The analysis of NMR spectra of both oxidized and reduced forms showed that the heme core and the overall fold of the mutated protein were not affected. However, the analysis of 1H-15N heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR spectra evidenced local rearrangements in the α-helix placed between hemes I and III that lead to structural readjustments in the orientation of heme axial ligands. The detailed thermodynamic characterization of F15L mutant revealed that the reduction potentials are more negative and the redox-Bohr effect is decreased. The redox potential of heme III is most affected. It is of interest that the mutation in F15, located between hemes I and III in PpcA, changes the characteristics of the two hemes differently. Altogether, these modifications disrupt the balance of the global network of cooperativities, preventing the F15L mutant protein from performing a concerted electron/proton transfer.

Silva, MA, Lucas TG, Salgueiro CA, Gomes CM.  2012.  Protein Folding Modulates the Swapped Dimerization Mechanism of Methyl-Accepting Chemotaxis Heme Sensors. PLoS ONE. 7(9):e46328. AbstractWebsite

The periplasmic sensor domains GSU0582 and GSU0935 are part of methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins in the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens. Both contain one c-type heme group and their crystal structures revealed that these domains form swapped dimers with a PAS fold formed from the two protein chains. The swapped dimerization of these sensors is related to the mechanism of signal transduction and the formation of the swapped dimer involves significant folding changes and conformational rearrangements within each monomeric component. However, the structural changes occurring during this process are poorly understood and lack a mechanistic framework. To address this issue, we have studied the folding and stability properties of two distinct heme-sensor PAS domains, using biophysical spectroscopies. We observed substantial differences in the thermodynamic stability (ΔG = 14.6 kJ.mol−1 for GSU0935 and ΔG = 26.3 kJ.mol−1 for GSU0582), and demonstrated that the heme moiety undergoes conformational changes that match those occurring at the global protein structure. This indicates that sensing by the heme cofactor induces conformational changes that rapidly propagate to the protein structure, an effect which is directly linked to the signal transduction mechanism. Interestingly, the two analyzed proteins have distinct levels of intrinsic disorder (25% for GSU0935 and 13% for GSU0582), which correlate with conformational stability differences. This provides evidence that the sensing threshold and intensity of the propagated allosteric effect is linked to the stability of the PAS-fold, as this property modulates domain swapping and dimerization. Analysis of the PAS-domain shows that disorder segments are found either at the hinge region that controls helix motions or in connecting segments of the β-sheet interface. The latter is known to be widely involved in both intra- and intermolecular interactions, supporting the view that it's folding and stability are at the basis of the specificity and regulation of many types of PAS-containing signaling proteins.

Morgado, L, Paixão VB, Schiffer M, Pokkuluri PR, Bruix M, Salgueiro CA.  2012.  Revealing the structural origin of the redox-Bohr effect: the first solution structure of a cytochrome from Geobacter sulfurreducens. Biochemical Journal. 441(1):179-187. AbstractWebsite

Gs (Geobacter sulfurreducens) can transfer electrons to the exterior of its cells, a property that makes it a preferential candidate for the development of biotechnological applications. Its genome encodes over 100 cytochromes and, despite their abundance and key functional roles, to date there is no structural information for these proteins in solution. The trihaem cytochrome PpcA might have a crucial role in the conversion of electronic energy into protonmotive force, a fundamental step for ATP synthesis in the presence of extracellular electron acceptors. In the present study, 15N-labelled PpcA was produced and NMR spectroscopy was used to determine its solution structure in the fully reduced state, its backbone dynamics and the pH-dependent conformational changes. The structure obtained is well defined, with an average pairwise rmsd (root mean square deviation) of 0.25 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) for the backbone atoms and 0.99 Å for all heavy atoms, and constitutes the first solution structure of a Gs cytochrome. The redox-Bohr centre responsible for controlling the electron/proton transfer was identified, as well as the putative interacting regions between PpcA and its redox partners. The solution structure of PpcA will constitute the foundation for studies aimed at mapping out in detail these interacting regions.

Fonseca, BM, Paquete CM, Salgueiro CA, Louro RO.  2012.  The role of intramolecular interactions in the functional control of multiheme cytochromes c. FEBS Lett. 586(5):504-509. AbstractWebsite

Detailed thermodynamic and structural data measured in soluble monomeric multiheme cytochromes c provided the basis to investigate the functional significance of interactions between redox co-factors. The steep decay of intramolecular interactions with distance means that close proximity of the redox centers is necessary to modulate the intrinsic reduction potentials in a significant way. This ensures selection of specific populations during redox activity in addition to maintaining fast intramolecular electron transfer. Therefore, intramolecular interactions between redox co-factors play an important role in establishing the biological function of the protein by controlling how electrons flow through and are distributed among the co-factors.

2011
Morgado, L, Paixão VB, Salgueiro CA, Bruix M.  2011.  Backbone, side chain and heme resonance assignments of the triheme cytochrome PpcA from Geobacter sulfurreducens. Biomolecular NMR Assignments. 5(1):113-116. AbstractWebsite

Gene knock-out studies on Geobacter sulfurreducens cells showed that the periplasmic triheme cytochrome PpcA is involved in respiratory pathways leading to the extracellular reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI) oxides. The crucial role of this protein in bridging the electron transfer between the cytoplasm and cell exterior was further supported by proteomics studies. In comparison with non-heme proteins, the presence of numerous proton-containing groups in the heme groups causes additional challenges to the full protein assignment and structure calculation. Here, we report the complete assignment of the heme proton signals together with the 1H and 15N backbone and side chain assignments of the reduced form of PpcA.

Qian, X, Mester T, Morgado L, Arakawa T, Sharma ML, Inoue K, Joseph C, Salgueiro CA, Maroney MJ, Lovley DR.  2011.  Biochemical characterization of purified OmcS, a c-type cytochrome required for insoluble Fe(III) reduction in Geobacter sulfurreducens. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics. 1807(4):404-412. AbstractWebsite

Previous studies with Geobacter sulfurreducens have demonstrated that OmcS, an abundant c-type cytochrome that is only loosely bound to the outer surface, plays an important role in electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides as well as other extracellular electron acceptors. In order to further investigate the function of OmcS, it was purified from a strain that overproduces the protein. Purified OmcS had a molecular mass of 47 015 Da, and six low-spin bis-histidinyl hexacoordinated heme groups. Its midpoint redox potential was −212 mV. A thermal stability analysis showed that the cooperative melting of purified OmcS occurs in the range of 65–82 °C. Far UV circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the secondary structure of purified OmcS consists of about 10% α-helix and abundant disordered structures. Dithionite-reduced OmcS was able to transfer electrons to a variety of substrates of environmental importance including insoluble Fe(III) oxide, Mn(IV) oxide and humic substances. Stopped flow analysis revealed that the reaction rate of OmcS oxidation has a hyperbolic dependence on the concentration of the studied substrates. A ten-fold faster reaction rate with anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) (25.2 s− 1) was observed as compared to that with Fe(III) citrate (2.9 s− 1). The results, coupled with previous localization and gene deletion studies, suggest that OmcS is well-suited to play an important role in extracellular electron transfer.

Dantas, JM, Saraiva IH, Morgado L, Silva MA, Schiffer M, Salgueiro CA, Louro RO.  2011.  Orientation of the axial ligands and magnetic properties of the hemes in the cytochromec7 family from Geobacter sulfurreducens determined by paramagnetic NMR. Dalton Transactions. 40(47):12713-12718. AbstractWebsite

Geobacter sulfurreducens is a sediment bacterium that contains a large number of multiheme cytochromes. The family of five c7 triheme periplasmic cytochromes from Geobacter sulfurreducens shows structural diversity of the heme core. Structural characterization of the relative orientation of the axial ligands of these proteins by 13C-paramagnetic NMR was carried out. The structures in solution were compared with those obtained by X-ray crystallography. For some hemes significant differences exist between the two methods such that orientation of the magnetic axes obtained from NMR data and the orientation taken from the X-ray coordinates differ. The results allowed the orientation of the magnetic axes to be defined confidently with respect to the heme frame in solution, a necessary step for the use of paramagnetic constraints to improve the complete solution structure of these proteins.

Pokkuluri, PR, Londer YY, Duke NEC, Pessanha M, Yang X, Orshonsky V, Orshonsky L, Erickson J, Zagyanskiy Y, Salgueiro CA, Schiffer M.  2011.  Structure of a novel dodecaheme cytochrome c from Geobacter sulfurreducens reveals an extended 12 nm protein with interacting hemes. Journal of Structural Biology. 174(1):223-233. AbstractWebsite

Multiheme cytochromes c are important in electron transfer pathways in reduction of both soluble and insoluble Fe(III) by Geobacter sulfurreducens. We determined the crystal structure at 3.2 Å resolution of the first dodecaheme cytochrome c (GSU1996) along with its N-terminal and C-terminal hexaheme fragments at 2.6 and 2.15 Å resolution, respectively. The macroscopic reduction potentials of the full-length protein and its fragments were measured. The sequence of GSU1996 can be divided into four c7-type domains (A, B, C and D) with homology to triheme cytochromes c7. In cytochromes c7 all three hemes are bis–His coordinated, whereas in c7-type domains the last heme is His–Met coordinated. The full-length GSU1996 has a 12 nm long crescent shaped structure with the 12 hemes arranged along a polypeptide to form a “nanowire” of hemes; it has a modular structure. Surprisingly, while the C-terminal half of the protein consists of two separate c7-type domains (C and D) connected by a small linker, the N-terminal half of the protein has two c7-type domains (A and B) that form one structural unit. This is also observed in the AB fragment. There is an unexpected interaction between the hemes at the interface of domains A and B, which form a heme-pair with nearly parallel stacking of their porphyrin rings. The hemes adjacent to each other throughout the protein are within van der Waals distance which enables efficient electron exchange between them. For the first time, the structural details of c7-type domains from one multiheme protein were compared.

2010
Morgado, L, Fernandes AP, Londer YY, Bruix M, Salgueiro CA.  2010.  One simple step in the identification of the cofactors signals, one giant leap for the solution structure determination of multiheme proteins. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 393(3):466-470. AbstractWebsite

Multiheme proteins play major roles in various biological systems. Structural information on these systems in solution is crucial to understand their functional mechanisms. However, the presence of numerous proton-containing groups in the heme cofactors and the magnetic properties of the heme iron, in particular in the oxidised state, complicates significantly the assignment of the NMR signals. Consequently, the multiheme proteins superfamily is extremely under-represented in structural databases, which constitutes a severe bottleneck in the elucidation of their structural–functional relationships. In this work, we present a strategy that simplifies the assignment of the NMR signals in multiheme proteins and, concomitantly, their solution structure determination, using the triheme cytochrome PpcA from the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens as a model. Cost-effective isotopic labeling was used to double label (13C/15N) the protein in its polypeptide chain, with the correct folding and heme post-translational modifications. The combined analysis of 1H–13C HSQC NMR spectra obtained for labeled and unlabeled samples of PpcA allowed a straight discrimination between the heme cofactors and the polypeptide chain signals and their confident assignment. The results presented here will be the foundations to assist solution structure determination of multiheme proteins, which are still very scarce in the literature.

Morgado, L, Saraiva IH, Louro RO, Salgueiro CA.  2010.  Orientation of the axial ligands and magnetic properties of the hemes in the triheme ferricytochrome PpcA from G. sulfurreducens determined by paramagnetic NMR. FEBS Letters. 584(15):3442-3445. AbstractWebsite

The geometry of the axial ligands of the hemes in the triheme cytochrome PpcA from Geobacter sulfurreducens was determined in solution for the ferric form using the unambiguous assignment of the NMR signals of the α-substituents of the hemes. The paramagnetic 13C shifts of the hemes can be used to define the heme electronic structure, the geometry of the axial ligands, and the magnetic susceptibility tensor. The latter establishes the magnitude and geometrical dependence of the pseudocontact shifts, which are crucial to warrant reliable structural constraints for a detailed structural characterization of this paramagnetic protein in solution.

Catarino, T, Pessanha M, Candia ADG, Gouveia Z, Fernandes AP, Pokkuluri PR, Murgida D, Marti MA, Todorovic S, Salgueiro CA.  2010.  Probing the Chemotaxis Periplasmic Sensor Domains from Geobacter sulfurreducens by Combined Resonance Raman and Molecular Dynamic Approaches: NO and CO Sensing. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 114 (34):11251-11260. AbstractWebsite

The periplasmic sensor domains encoded by genes gsu0582 and gsu0935 are part of methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins in the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens (Gs). The sensor domains of these proteins contain a heme-c prosthetic group and a PAS-like fold as revealed by their crystal structures. Biophysical studies of the two domains showed that nitric oxide (NO) binds to the heme in both the ferric and ferrous forms, whereas carbon monoxide (CO) binds only to the reduced form. In order to address these exogenous molecules as possible physiological ligands, binding studies and resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopic characterization of the respective CO and NO adducts were performed in this work. In the absence of exogenous ligands, typical RR frequencies of five-coordinated (5c) high-spin and six-coordinated (6c) low-spin species were observed in the oxidized form. In the reduced state, only frequencies corresponding to the latter were detected. In both sensors, CO binding yields 6c low-spin adducts by replacing the endogenous distal ligand. The binding of NO by the two proteins causes partial disruption of the proximal Fe-His bond, as revealed by the RR fingerprint features of 5cFe-NO and 6cNO-Fe-His species. The measured CO and NO dissociation constants of ferrous GSU0582 and GSU0935 sensors reveal that both proteins have high and similar affinity toward these molecules (Kd ≈ 0.04−0.08 μM). On the contrary, in the ferric form, sensor GSU0582 showed a much higher affinity for NO (Kd ≈ 0.3 μM for GSU0582 versus 17 μM for GSU0935). Molecular dynamics calculations revealed a more open heme pocket in GSU0935, which could account for the different affinities for NO. Taken together, spectroscopic data and MD calculations revealed subtle differences in the binding properties and structural features of formed CO and NO adducts, but also indicated a possibility that a (5c) high-spin/(6c) low-spin redox-linked equilibrium could drive the physiological sensing of Gs cells.

Inoue, K, Qian X, Morgado L, Kim B-C, Mester T, Izallalen M, Salgueiro CA, Lovley DR.  2010.  Purification and Characterization of OmcZ, an Outer-Surface, Octaheme c-Type Cytochrome Essential for Optimal Current Production by Geobacter sulfurreducens. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 76(12):3999-4007. AbstractWebsite

Previous studies have demonstrated that Geobacter sulfurreducens requires the c-type cytochrome OmcZ, which is present in large (OmcZL; 50-kDa) and small (OmcZS; 30-kDa) forms, for optimal current production in microbial fuel cells. This protein was further characterized to aid in understanding its role in current production. Subcellular-localization studies suggested that OmcZS was the predominant extracellular form of OmcZ. N- and C-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of purified OmcZS and molecular weight measurements indicated that OmcZS is a cleaved product of OmcZL retaining all 8 hemes, including 1 heme with the unusual c-type heme-binding motif CX14CH. The purified OmcZS was remarkably thermally stable (thermal-denaturing temperature, 94.2°C). Redox titration analysis revealed that the midpoint reduction potential of OmcZS is approximately −220 mV (versus the standard hydrogen electrode [SHE]) with nonequivalent heme groups that cover a large reduction potential range (−420 to −60 mV). OmcZS transferred electrons in vitro to a diversity of potential extracellular electron acceptors, such as Fe(III) citrate, U(VI), Cr(VI), Au(III), Mn(IV) oxide, and the humic substance analogue anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate, but not Fe(III) oxide. The biochemical properties and extracellular localization of OmcZ suggest that it is well suited for promoting electron transfer in current-producing biofilms of G. sulfurreducens.

Morgado, L, Bruix M, Pessanha M, Londer YY, Salgueiro CA.  2010.  Thermodynamic Characterization of a Triheme Cytochrome Family from Geobacter sulfurreducens Reveals Mechanistic and Functional Diversity. Biophysical Journal. 99(1):293-301. AbstractWebsite

A family of five periplasmic triheme cytochromes (PpcA-E) was identified in Geobacter sulfurreducens, where they play a crucial role by driving electron transfer from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior and assisting the reduction of extracellular acceptors. The thermodynamic characterization of PpcA using NMR and visible spectroscopies was previously achieved under experimental conditions identical to those used for the triheme cytochrome c7 from Desulfuromonas acetoxidans. Under such conditions, attempts to obtain NMR data were complicated by the relatively fast intermolecular electron exchange. This work reports the detailed thermodynamic characterization of PpcB, PpcD, and PpcE under optimal experimental conditions. The thermodynamic characterization of PpcA was redone under these new conditions to allow a proper comparison of the redox properties with those of other members of this family. The heme reduction potentials of the four proteins are negative, differ from each other, and cover different functional ranges. These reduction potentials are strongly modulated by heme-heme interactions and by interactions with protonated groups (the redox-Bohr effect) establishing different cooperative networks for each protein, which indicates that they are designed to perform different functions in the cell. PpcA and PpcD appear to be optimized to interact with specific redox partners involving e−/H+ transfer via different mechanisms. Although no evidence of preferential electron transfer pathway or e−/H+ coupling was found for PpcB and PpcE, the difference in their working potential ranges suggests that they may also have different physiological redox partners. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to characterize homologous cytochromes from the same microorganism and provide evidence of their different mechanistic and functional properties. These findings provide an explanation for the coexistence of five periplasmic triheme cytochromes in G. sulfurreducens.

2009
Pokkuluri, PR, Londer YY, Wood SJ, Duke NEC, Morgado L, Salgueiro CA, Schiffer M.  2009.  Outer membrane cytochrome c, OmcF, from Geobacter sulfurreducens: High structural similarity to an algal cytochrome c6. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics. 74(1):266-270. AbstractWebsite

No abstract included.

Boscolo, B, Leal SS, Salgueiro CA, Ghibaudi EM, Gomes CM.  2009.  The prominent conformational plasticity of lactoperoxidase: A chemical and pH stability analysis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and Proteomics. 1794(7):1041-1048. AbstractWebsite

Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is a structurally complex and stable mammalian redox enzyme. Here we aim at evaluating the influence of ionic interactions and how these intertwine with the structural dynamics, stability and activity of LPO. In this respect, we have compared LPO guanidinium hydrochloride (GdmCl) and urea denaturation pathways and performed a detailed investigation on the effects of pH on the LPO conformational dynamics and stability. Our experimental findings using far-UV CD, Trp fluorescence emission and ESR spectroscopies clearly indicate that LPO charged-denaturation with GdmCl induced a sharp two-step process versus a three-step unfolding mechanism induced by urea. This differential effect between GdmCl and urea suggests that ionic interactions must play a rather prominent role in the stabilization of LPO. With both denaturants, the protein core was shown to retain activity up to near the respective Cm values. Moreover, a pH titration of LPO evidenced no significant conformational alterations or perturbation of heme activity within the 4 to 11 pH interval. In contrast, alterations of ionic interactions by poising LPO at pH 3, 2 and 12 resulted in a loss of secondary structure, loosening of tertiary contacts and loss of activity, which appear to be associated with the perturbation of the hydrophobic core, as evidenced by ANS binding, as well as disruption of the heme pocket demonstrated by optical and EPR spectroscopies. Overall, LPO is characterised by a high degree of peripheral structural plasticity without perturbation of the core heme moiety. The possible physiological meaning of such features is discussed.

Fonseca, BM, Saraiva IH, Paquete CM, Soares CM, Pacheco I, Salgueiro CA, Louro RO.  2009.  The tetraheme cytochrome from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 shows thermodynamic bias for functional specificity of the hemes. Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry. 14(3):375-385. AbstractWebsite

Bacteria of the genus Shewanella contain an abundant small tetraheme cytochrome in their periplasm when growing anaerobically. Data collected for the protein isolated from S. oneidensis MR-1 and S. frigidimarina indicate differences in the order of oxidation of the hemes. A detailed thermodynamic characterization of the cytochrome from S. oneidensis MR-1 in the physiological pH range was performed, with data collected in the pH range 5.5-9.0 from NMR experiments using partially oxidized samples and from redox titrations followed by visible spectroscopy. These data allow the parsing of the redox and redox-protonation interactions that occur during the titration of hemes. The results show that electrostatic effects dominate the heme-heme interactions, in agreement with modest redox-linked structural modifications, and protonation has a considerable influence on the redox properties of the hemes in the physiological pH range. Theoretical calculations using the oxidized and reduced structures of this protein reveal that the bulk redox-Bohr effect arises from the aggregate fractional titration of several of the heme propionates. This detailed characterization of the thermodynamic properties of the cytochrome shows that only a few of the multiple microscopic redox states that the protein can access are significantly populated at physiological pH. On this basis a functional pathway for the redox activity of the small tetraheme cytochrome from S. oneidensis MR-1 is proposed, where reduction and protonation are thermodynamically coupled in the physiological range. The differences between the small tetraheme cytochromes from the two organisms are discussed in the context of their biological role.

Morgado, L, Fernandes AP, Londer YY, Pokkuluri PR, Schiffer M, Salgueiro CA.  2009.  Thermodynamic characterization of the redox centres in a representative domain of a novel c-type multihaem cytochrome. Biochemical Journal. 420(3):485-492. AbstractWebsite

Multihaem cytochromes that could form protein “nanowires” were identified in the Geobacter sulfurreducens genome, and represent a new type of multihaem cytochrome. The sequences of these proteins, two with 12 haems (GSU1996, GSU0592) and one with 27 haems (GSU2210), suggest that they are formed with domains homologous to the trihaem cytochrome c7. Although all three haems have bis-His co-ordination in cytochromes c7, in each domain of the above polymers, the haem equivalent to haem IV has His-Met co-ordination. We previously determined the structure and measured the macroscopic redox potential of one representative domain (domain C) of a dodecahaem cytochrome (GSU1996). In the present study, the microscopic redox properties of the individual haem groups of domain C were determined using NMR and UV–visible spectroscopies. The reduction potentials of the haems for the fully reduced and protonated protein are different from each other (haem I, −106 mV; haem III, −136 mV; and haem IV, −125 mV) and are strongly modulated by redox interactions. This result is rather surprising since the His-Met co-ordinated haem IV does not have the highest potential as was expected. The polypeptide environment of each haem group and the strong haem pairwise redox interactions must play a dominant role in controlling the individual haem potentials. The strong redox interactions between the haems extend the range of their operating potentials at physiological pH (haem I, −71 mV, haem III, −146 mV and haem IV, −110 mV). Such a modulation in haem potentials is likely to have a functional significance in the metabolism of G. sulfurreducens.

Pessanha, M, Rothery EL, Miles CS, Reid GA, Chapman SK, Louro RO, Turner DL, Salgueiro CA, Xavier AV.  2009.  Tuning of functional heme reduction potentials in Shewanella fumarate reductases. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics. 1787(2):113-120. AbstractWebsite

The fumarate reductases from S. frigidimarina NCIMB400 and S. oneidensis MR-1 are soluble and monomeric enzymes located in the periplasm of these bacteria. These proteins display two redox active domains, one containing four c-type hemes and another containing FAD at the catalytic site. This arrangement of single-electron redox co-factors leading to multiple-electron active sites is widespread in respiratory enzymes. To investigate the properties that allow a chain of single-electron co-factors to sustain the activity of a multi-electron catalytic site, redox titrations followed by NMR and visible spectroscopies were applied to determine the microscopic thermodynamic parameters of the hemes. The results show that the redox behaviour of these fumarate reductases is similar and dominated by a strong interaction between hemes II and III. This interaction facilitates a sequential transfer of two electrons from the heme domain to FAD via heme IV.

2008
Fernandes, AP, Couto I, Morgado L, Londer YY, Salgueiro CA.  2008.  Isotopic labeling of c-type multiheme cytochromes overexpressed in E. coli. Protein Expression and Purification. 59(1):182-188. AbstractWebsite

Progresses made in bacterial genome sequencing show a remarkable profusion of multiheme c-type cytochromes in many bacteria, highlighting the importance of these proteins in different cellular events. However, the characterization of multiheme cytochromes has been significantly retarded by the numerous experimental challenges encountered by researchers who attempt to overexpress these proteins, especially if isotopic labeling is required. Here we describe a methodology for isotopic labeling of multiheme cytochromes c overexpressed in Escherichia coli, using the triheme cytochrome PpcA from Geobacter sulfurreducens as a model protein. By combining different strategies previously described and using E. coli cells containing the gene coding for PpcA and the cytochrome c maturation gene cluster, an experimental labeling methodology was developed that is based on two major aspects: (i) use of a two-step culture growth procedure, where cell growth in rich media was followed by transfer to minimal media containing 15N-labeled ammonium chloride, and (ii) incorporation of the heme precursor delta-aminolevulinic acid in minimal culture media. The yields of labeled protein obtained were comparable to those obtained for expression of PpcA in rich media. Proper protein folding and labeling were confirmed by UV–visible and NMR spectroscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a recombinant multiheme cytochrome labeling and it represents a major breakthrough for functional and structural studies of multiheme cytochromes.

Paixão, VB, Salgueiro CA, Brennan L, Reid GA, Chapman SK, Turner DL.  2008.  The Solution Structure of a Tetraheme Cytochrome from Shewanella frigidimarina Reveals a Novel Family Structural Motif. Biochemistry. 47(46):11973-11980. AbstractWebsite

The bacteria belonging to the genus Shewanella are facultative anaerobes that utilize a variety of terminal electron acceptors which includes soluble and insoluble metal oxides. The tetraheme c-type cytochrome isolated during anaerobic growth of Shewanella frigidimarina NCIMB400 (Sfc) contains 86 residues and is involved in the Fe(III) reduction pathways. Although the functional properties of Sfc redox centers are quite well described, no structures are available for this protein. In this work, we report the solution structure of the reduced form of Sfc. The overall fold is completely different from those of the tetraheme cytochromes c3 and instead has similarities with the tetraheme cytochrome recently isolated from Shewanella oneidensis (Soc). Comparison of the tetraheme cytochromes from Shewanella shows a considerable diversity in their primary structure and heme reduction potentials, yet they have highly conserved heme geometry, as is the case for the family of tetraheme cytochromes isolated from Desulfovibrio spp.

Morgado, L, Bruix M, Orshonsky V, Londer YY, Duke NEC, Yang X, Pokkuluri PR, Schiffer M, Salgueiro CA.  2008.  Structural insights into the modulation of the redox properties of two Geobacter sulfurreducens homologous triheme cytochromes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics. 1777(9):1157-1165. AbstractWebsite

The redox properties of a periplasmic triheme cytochrome, PpcB from Geobacter sulfurreducens, were studied by NMR and visible spectroscopy. The structure of PpcB was determined by X-ray diffraction. PpcB is homologous to PpcA (77% sequence identity), which mediates cytoplasmic electron transfer to extracellular acceptors and is crucial in the bioenergetic metabolism of Geobacter spp. The heme core structure of PpcB in solution, probed by 2D-NMR, was compared to that of PpcA. The results showed that the heme core structures of PpcB and PpcA in solution are similar, in contrast to their crystal structures where the heme cores of the two proteins differ from each other. NMR redox titrations were carried out for both proteins and the order of oxidation of the heme groups was determined. The microscopic properties of PpcB and PpcA redox centers showed important differences: (i) the order in which hemes become oxidized is III–I–IV for PpcB, as opposed to I–IV–III for PpcA; (ii) the redox-Bohr effect is also different in the two proteins. The different redox features observed between PpcB and PpcA suggest that each protein uniquely modulates the properties of their co-factors to assure effectiveness in their respective metabolic pathways. The origins of the observed differences are discussed.