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Bandeiras, TM, Salgueiro CA, Kletzin A, Gomes CM, Teixeira M.  2002.  Acidianus ambivalens type-II NADH dehydrogenase: genetic characterisation and identification of the flavin moiety as FMN. FEBS Letters. 531(2):273-277. AbstractWebsite

The thermoacidophilic archaeon Acidianus ambivalens contains a monomeric 47 kDa type-II NADH dehydrogenase (NDH), which contains a covalently bound flavin. In this work, by a combination of several methods, namely 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopies, it is proven that this enzyme contains covalent FMN, a novelty among this family of enzymes, which were so far thought to mainly have the flavin dinucleotide form. Discrimination between several possible covalent flavin linkages was achieved by spectral and fluorescence experiments, which identified an 8α-N(1)-histidylflavin-type of linkage. Analysis of the gene-deduced amino acid sequence of type-II NDH showed no transmembranar helices and allowed the definition of putative dinucleotide and quinone binding motifs. Further, it is suggested that membrane anchoring can be achieved via amphipatic helices.

Bandeiras, TM, Salgueiro CA, Huber H, Gomes CM, Teixeira M.  2003.  The respiratory chain of the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus metallicus: studies on the type-II NADH dehydrogenase. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics. 1557(1-3):13-19. AbstractWebsite

The membranes of the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus metallicus exhibit an oxygen consumption activity of 0.5 nmol O2 min−1 mg−1, which is insensitive to rotenone, suggesting the presence of a type-II NADH dehydrogenase. Following this observation, the enzyme was purified from solubilised membranes and characterised. The pure protein is a monomer with an apparent molecular mass of 49 kDa, having a high N-terminal amino acid sequence similarity towards other prokaryotic enzymes of the same type. It contains a covalently attached flavin, which was identified as being FMN by 31P-NMR spectroscopy, a novelty among type-II NADH dehydrogenases. Metal analysis showed the absence of iron, indicating that no FeS clusters are present in the protein. The average reduction potential of the FMN group was determined to be +160 mV, at 25 °C and pH 6.5, by redox titrations monitored by visible spectroscopy. Catalytically, the enzyme is a NADH:quinone oxidoreductase, as it is capable of transferring electrons from NADH to several quinones, including ubiquinone-1, ubiquinone-2 and caldariella quinone. Maximal turnover rates of 195 μmol NADH oxidized min−1 mg−1 at 60 °C were obtained using ubiquinone-2 as electron acceptor, after enzyme dilution and incubation with phospholipids.

Bird, LJ, Saraiva IH, Park S, Calçada EO, Salgueiro CA, Nitschke W, Louro RO, Newman DK.  2014.  Nonredundant roles for cytochrome c2 and two high-potential iron-sulfur proteins in the photoferrotroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1. J Bacteriol. 196(4):850-858. AbstractWebsite

The purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 expresses multiple small high-potential redox proteins during photoautotrophic growth, including two high-potential iron-sulfur proteins (HiPIPs) (PioC and Rpal_4085) and a cytochrome c2. We evaluated the role of these proteins in TIE-1 through genetic, physiological, and biochemical analyses. Deleting the gene encoding cytochrome c2 resulted in a loss of photosynthetic ability by TIE-1, indicating that this protein cannot be replaced by either HiPIP in cyclic electron flow. PioC was previously implicated in photoferrotrophy, an unusual form of photosynthesis in which reducing power is provided through ferrous iron oxidation. Using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and flash-induced spectrometry, we show that PioC has a midpoint potential of 450 mV, contains all the typical features of a HiPIP, and can reduce the reaction centers of membrane suspensions in a light-dependent manner at a much lower rate than cytochrome c2. These data support the hypothesis that PioC linearly transfers electrons from iron, while cytochrome c2 is required for cyclic electron flow. Rpal_4085, despite having spectroscopic characteristics and a reduction potential similar to those of PioC, is unable to reduce the reaction center. Rpal_4085 is upregulated by the divalent metals Fe(II), Ni(II), and Co(II), suggesting that it might play a role in sensing or oxidizing metals in the periplasm. Taken together, our results suggest that these three small electron transfer proteins perform different functions in the cell.

Boscolo, B, Leal SS, Salgueiro CA, Ghibaudi EM, Gomes CM.  2009.  The prominent conformational plasticity of lactoperoxidase: A chemical and pH stability analysis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and Proteomics. 1794(7):1041-1048. AbstractWebsite

Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is a structurally complex and stable mammalian redox enzyme. Here we aim at evaluating the influence of ionic interactions and how these intertwine with the structural dynamics, stability and activity of LPO. In this respect, we have compared LPO guanidinium hydrochloride (GdmCl) and urea denaturation pathways and performed a detailed investigation on the effects of pH on the LPO conformational dynamics and stability. Our experimental findings using far-UV CD, Trp fluorescence emission and ESR spectroscopies clearly indicate that LPO charged-denaturation with GdmCl induced a sharp two-step process versus a three-step unfolding mechanism induced by urea. This differential effect between GdmCl and urea suggests that ionic interactions must play a rather prominent role in the stabilization of LPO. With both denaturants, the protein core was shown to retain activity up to near the respective Cm values. Moreover, a pH titration of LPO evidenced no significant conformational alterations or perturbation of heme activity within the 4 to 11 pH interval. In contrast, alterations of ionic interactions by poising LPO at pH 3, 2 and 12 resulted in a loss of secondary structure, loosening of tertiary contacts and loss of activity, which appear to be associated with the perturbation of the hydrophobic core, as evidenced by ANS binding, as well as disruption of the heme pocket demonstrated by optical and EPR spectroscopies. Overall, LPO is characterised by a high degree of peripheral structural plasticity without perturbation of the core heme moiety. The possible physiological meaning of such features is discussed.