Export 23 results:
Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year  (Desc)]
Pinto, C. A. M., Palomar T., Alves L. C., da Silva S. H. M., Monteiro R. C., Macedo M. F., & Vilarigues M. G. (2019).  Fungal biodeterioration of stained-glass windows in monuments from Belém do Pará (Brazil). International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 138, 106 - 113. AbstractWebsite

The most prominent historical buildings in Belém do Pará (Northern Brazil) have modernist stained-glass windows, which were commissioned from Europe since the end of the 19th century. Some of them present biodegradation; however, there is no information about the microbial activity on them. The present work is focused on the biodeterioration by fungi on some of these Modern stained-glass windows. The fungal communities were collected, isolated and then identified by means of molecular methods. Additionally, a laboratory-based biodeterioration experiment was carried out to assess the fungal activity on replica glass samples with three different chemical compositions. The replica samples were inoculated with a four-fungal species mixture and incubated under optimal growth conditions for 5 months. Optical microscopy, μ-PIXE, SEM-EDS and FTIR-ATR were performed to evaluate the biodeterioration of the soda-lime silicate glasses. This multidisciplinary approach showed that the inoculated spores (Aspergillus arenarioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Hortaea werneckii, and Trichoderma longibrachiatum) were able to form substantial mycelia in all replica glass samples. The main alterations observed were small crystals, hyphae fingerprints and a slight decrease on the glass surface smoothness. Despite the aforementioned damages, the soda-lime silicate glass compositions showed high resistance against the inoculated fungal species.

Machado, A., & Vilarigues M. (2018).  Blue enamel pigment—Chemical and morphological characterization of its corrosion process. Corrosion Science. , 2018 AbstractWebsite


Palomar, T. (2018).  Characterization of the alteration processes of historical glasses on the seabed. 214, 391 - 401., 2018 AbstractWebsite

Glass objects are common in shipwrecks since they are associated with ordinary glassware or commercial products. The alteration pathologies of historical glasses from two wrecks from the Mediterranean Sea were analyzed to characterize their alteration mechanisms. The results of this research proved that the alteration layers presented a moderate content of Na2O, similar to the average salinity of the ocean, and a high content of Al2O3 due to an extremely basic environment during the corrosion process. The biofouling layer protected the glass surfaces. Dark deposits with a high content of MnO were observed in the most instable glass.

M. Corrêa Pinto, A., Macedo M. F., & G. Vilarigues M. (2018).  The conservation of stained-glass windows in Latin America: A literature overview. , 2018 AbstractWebsite
Pinto, A. C. M., Sanjad T. A. B. C., Angélica R. S., da Costa M. L., Paiva R. S., & Palomar T. (2018).  19th century stained-glass windows from Belém do Pará (Brazil): Analytical characterisation and pathology. Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio. 57, 133 - 141., Number 4 AbstractWebsite

The aim of this work was to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of the stained-glass windows into the 19th century of two mausoleums located in the city of Belém do Pará (Brazil), and to evaluate their state of conservation. The glass chemical composition was determined by WXRF and SEM/EDS. The samples’ morphology and the microorganisms’ identification were carried out by optical microscopy. The results indicated that the samples were soda-lime silicate glass, with approximately 70wt. % of SiO2, which contributed to the resistance of the stained glass to the weathering. The concentration of Na2O was normally twice the K2O, which contrasts with the composition of other panels produced during the same period, as reported in the literature. The biofilm is composed by cyanobacteria and rotifers. Overall, the panels analysed were in a good state of conservation, despite their exposure to tropical climate conditions for more than a century with no preventive measures whatsoever. Resumen El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar las características físico-químicas de las vidrieras del siglo XIX correspondientes a dos mausoleos ubicados en la ciudad de Belém do Pará (Brasil) para evaluar su estado de conservación. La composición química del vidrio fue determinada por WXRF y SEM/EDS. La morfología de las muestras y la identificación de los microorganismos fueron realizadas por microscopia óptica. Los resultados indicaron que las muestras eran vidrios de silicato sódico-cálcico, con aproximadamente el 70% en peso de SiO2, lo que aumentó la resistencia a la corrosión de los vidrios de estas vidrieras. La concentración de Na2O fue normalmente el doble que de K2O, lo que contrasta con la composición de otros paneles producidos durante el mismo período, de acuerdo con la literatura. El biofilm presentó cianobacterias y rotíferas. En general, los paneles analizados presentaban un buen estado de conservación, a pesar de su exposición a las condiciones climáticas tropicales durante más de un siglo, sin las medidas de conservación preventivas.

Palomar, T. (2018).  Chemical composition and alteration processes of glasses from the Cathedral of León (Spain). Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio. 57, 101 - 111., Number 3 AbstractWebsite

The Cathedral of León has one of the most important ensembles of medieval stained glass windows in Europe; however, most of them have been altered by atmospheric weathering. The main objective of this study was the characterization of a set of glass samples from the Cathedral of León, the comparison with glasses from previous interventions in the cathedral and the study of the relation between the alteration pathologies, the chemical composition of the glasses and the environment in which they were placed. The samples were characterized by means of binocular microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, visible spectrophotometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The main alteration of glasses exposed until the 19th century was the formation of pits by dealkalinization, while the glasses exposed until the present formed CaSO4 deposits as a consequence of the synergic effect of rainwater and gaseous pollutants. Glasses altered by the browning of manganese were also characterized. Resumen La Catedral de León posee una de las colecciones de vidrieras medievales más importantes de Europa; sin embargo, muchos de los vidrios se han alterado por degradación atmosférica. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la caracterización de un conjunto de vidrios procedentes de la Catedral de León, su comparación con vidrios procedentes de intervenciones previas en la catedral y el estudio de la relación entre las patologías de alteración, la composición química del vidrio y el medio en el que estuvieron expuestas. Las muestras se caracterizaron mediante lupa binocular, microscopía electrónica de barrido y microanálisis de dispersión de energía de rayos X, espectrofotometría visible, espectrometría de fluorescencia de rayos X y difracción de rayos X. La alteración principal de los vidrios expuestos hasta el s. xix consistió en la formación de picaduras por desalcalinización, mientras que en los vidrios expuestos hasta la actualidad se formaron depósitos de CaSO4 como consecuencia del efecto sinérgico de la lluvia y los gases contaminantes. También se han caracterizado vidrios alterados por el enmarronamiento del manganeso.

Rodrigues, A., Fearn S., Palomar T., & Vilarigues M. (2018).  Early stages of surface alteration of soda-rich-silicate glasses in the museum environment. Corrosion Science. 143, 362 - 375. AbstractWebsite

This paper studied the alteration of three soda-rich-silicate glass types (Cristallo, façon-de-Venise and soda-lime silicate). Replica samples were exposed to different environments simulating museum-like conditions – room temperature and different relative humidities (RH). Results were analysed by SIMS, μ-FTIR, Optical Microscopy and Optical 3D profilometry. Cristallo appears as the most vulnerable, whilst the soda-lime glass appears as the most resistant to the environmental deterioration. The thickness of the altered layer is proportional to the time of exposure and to the RH of the surrounding atmosphere. From the results obtained, the glass composition and the water available and adsorbed to the surface strongly influence the kinetics of the surface alteration.

Rodrigues, A., Fearn S., & Vilarigues M. (2018).  Historic K-rich silicate glass surface alteration: Behaviour of high-silica content matrices. Corrosion Science. 145, 249 - 261. AbstractWebsite

Several K-Ca-Si glass compositions typical of Central-European glassworks are susceptible to damage beyond recall, even in mild museum conservative conditions. In order to provide a comprehensive picture of the deterioration process, replica samples were produced and exposed to four different museum-like environments. The corrosion experiment was followed by the use of ToF-SIMS, μ-Raman and μ-FTIR, performing a systematic compositional and structural study for the early stages (one year) of surface alteration. This work demonstrates the dominant role of Pb2+ and Ca2+ content for the inferable existence of connected conduction pathways, with strong implications on the surface's hydration, alkali-diffusion and hydrolysis.

Palomar, T., Redol P., Cruz Almeida I., Pereira da Silva E., & Vilarigues M. (2018).  The Influence of Environment in the Alteration of the Stained-Glass Windows in Portuguese Monuments. Heritage. 1, 365–376., Number 2 AbstractWebsite

This work presents the results of the exposure of soda-lime, potash-lime and mixed-alkali silicate glasses during ten and twenty months in different Portuguese monuments with historical stained-glass windows to characterize the influence of local environmental conditions. The glass samples were exposed in the Monastery of Batalha (Batalha), the Monastery of Jerónimos (Lisbon), and the Cathedral of Évora (Évora). A set of analytical techniques to assess the physicochemical effects were used, including optical microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. All the samples presented crystalline deposits on their surface; however, their quantity and nature depended on the atmospheric conditions during the days before the collection. Potash-lime silicate glass was the most altered glass in comparison with soda-lime and mixed-alkali silicate glasses. The samples from the Cathedral of Évora showed a high content of dust and salts on their surface but without severe chemical pathologies; however, those samples exposed in the Monastery of Jerónimos and the Monastery of Batalha presented alteration layers due to a high humidity environment.

Palomar, T., Chabas A., Bastidas D. M., de la Fuente D., & Verney-Carron A. (2017).  Effect of marine aerosols on the alteration of silicate glasses. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 471, 328 - 337., 2017 AbstractWebsite
Delgado, J. M., Nunes D., Fortunato E., Laia C. A. T., Branco L. C., & Vilarigues M. (2017).  The effect of three luminescent ionic liquids on corroded glass surfaces – A first step into stained-glass cleaning. Corrosion Science. 118, 109 - 117., 2017 AbstractWebsite
Coutinho, M. L., Miller A. Z., Martin-Sanchez P. M., Mirão J., Gomez-Bolea A., Machado-Moreira B., Cerqueira-Alves L., Jurado V., Saiz-Jimenez C., Lima A., Phillips A. J. L., Pina F., & Macedo M. F. (2016).  A multiproxy approach to evaluate biocidal treatments on biodeteriorated majolica glazed tiles. Environmental Microbiology. 18(12), 4794 - 4816., 2016 AbstractWebsite
Coutinho, M. L., Miller A. Z., & Macedo M. F. (2015).  Biological colonization and biodeterioration of architectural ceramic materials: An overview. Journal of Cultural Heritage. 16(5), 759 - 777., 2015 AbstractWebsite
Coutinho, M. A. G. L. D. (2015).  Biological colonization on majolica glazed tiles: biodeterioration, bioreceptivity and mitigation strategies. Departamento de Conservação e Restauro, FCT-NOVA. , Caparica
Rodrigues, A., Gutierrez-Patricio S., Miller A. Z., Saiz-Jimenez C., Wiley R., Nunes D., Vilarigues M., & Macedo M. F. (2014).  Fungal biodeterioration of stained-glass windows. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation. 90, 152 - 160., 2014 AbstractWebsite
Coutinho, M. L., Miller A. Z., Gutierrez-Patricio S., Hernandez-Marine M., Gomez-Bolea A., Rogerio-Candelera M. A., Philips A. J. L., Jurado V., Saiz-Jimenez C., & Macedo M. F. (2013).  Microbial communities on deteriorated artistic tiles from Pena National Palace (Sintra, Portugal). International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation. 84, 322 - 332., 2013 AbstractWebsite
Machado, A., Redol P., Branco L., & Vilarigues M. (2011).  Ionic liquids for medieval stained glass cleaning: a new frontier. ICOM-CC Lisbon. 1-9. Abstract
Vilarigues, M., & da Silva R. C. (2009).  The effect of Mn, Fe and Cu ions on potash-glass corrosion. 355(31), 1630 - 1637., 2009 AbstractWebsite
Salerno, C. S., Moretti C., Medici T., Morna T., & Verità M. (2008).  Glass weathering in eighteenth century mosaics: The São João Chapel in the São Roque Church in Lisbon. Journal of Cultural Heritage. 9(SUPPL.), e37 - e40., 2008 AbstractWebsite
Vilarigues, M., & da Silva R. C. (2006).  Characterization of potash-glass corrosion in aqueous solution by ion beam and IR spectroscopy. 352(50), 5368 - 5375., 2006 AbstractWebsite