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Khili, Faouzia, João Borges Borges, Pedro L. Almeida, Rabah Boukherroub, and Amel Dakhlaoui Omrani. "Extraction of Cellulose Nanocrystals with Structure I and II and Their Applications for Reduction of Graphene Oxide and Nanocomposite Elaboration." Waste and Biomass Valorization 10 (2019): 1913-1927. AbstractWebsite

The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of the hydrolysis process on the properties of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) isolated from different precursors and the subsequent use of the extracted NCC for the reduction of graphene oxide (GO). The raw materials (almond and peanut shells) chosen for the isolation of cellulose were selected on the basis of their abundance and their poorly investigation in the production of NCC. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was firstly extracted by alkali and bleaching treatments, then hydrolyzed under different processes to produce NCC polymorphs with structure I (NCC-I) and NCC structure II (NCC-II). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the 13C NMR studies of the alkali and bleached products confirmed the formation of cellulose type I with high purity and good crystallinity, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed micrometric fibers with lengths reaching 80 µm. Sulfuric acid treatment of these microfibers results in NCC type I or II, depending on the hydrolysis process. SEM of the NCC samples exhibited nanorods with diameter and aspect ratio in the range of 20–40 and 20–25 nm, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the MCC and NCC products indicated stable materials with a degradation temperature reaching 240 and 200 °C for MCC and NCC, respectively. The other part of our work concerns the use of the obtained cellulose nanocrystals (type II) for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide composite (NCC/RGO), to demonstrate the reducing properties of the isolated NCCII.