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Fe-57 Q-band pulsed ENDOR of the hetero-dinuclear site of nickel hydrogenase: Comparison of the NiA, NiB, and NiC states, Huyett, J. E., Carepo M., Pamplona A., Franco R., Moura I., Moura J. J. G., and Hoffman B. M. , Journal of the American Chemical Society, Oct 1, Volume 119, Number 39, p.9291-9292, (1997) AbstractWebsite
Ferredoxin from Methanosarcina barkeri: evidence for the presence of a three-iron center, Moura, I., Moura J. J., Huynh B. H., Santos H., Legall J., and Xavier A. V. , Eur J Biochem, Aug, Volume 126, Number 1, p.95-8, (1982) AbstractWebsite

Methanosarcina barkeri ferredoxin was purified and characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The purification procedure included chromatographic steps on DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration. The isolated protein is unstable under aerobic conditions. The ferredoxin exhibits charge transfer bands at 283 nm and 405 nm with an absorption ratio A405/A283 = 0.73. Its molecular weight has been estimated to be 20000-22000 by gel filtration chromatography. The native ferredoxin exhibits an intense EPR signal at g = 2.02 and only a very weak g = 1.94 signal develops upon reduction with dithionite. The Mossbauer spectra of the reduced protein are characteristic of a [3Fe-3S] center. The combined EPR and Mossbauer studies show that M. barkeri ferredoxin contains only [3Fe-3S] clusters, similar to Azotobacter vinelandii Fd[Emptage, M.H., Kent, T.A., Huynh, B.H., Rawlings, J., Orme-Johnson, W.H. & Munck, M. (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 1793-1796], Desulfovibrio gigas FdII [Huynh, B.H., Moura, J.J.G., Moura, I., Kent, T.A., LeGall, J., Xavier, A.V. & Munck, E. (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 3242-3244] and mitochondrial beef heart aconitase [Kent, T.A., Dreyer, J.-L., Kennedy, M.C., Huynh, B.H., Emptage, M.H., Beinert, H. & Munck, E. (1982) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 79, 1096-1100].

Ferredoxins, Moura, J. J., Macedo A. L., and Palma P. N. , Methods Enzymol, Volume 243, p.165-88, (1994) AbstractWebsite
Ferromagnetic resonance of Fe(111) thin films and Fe(111)/Cu(111) multilayers, Rezende, S. M., Moura J. A., de Aguiar F. M., and Schreiner W. H. , Phys Rev B Condens Matter, Jun 1, Volume 49, Number 21, p.15105-15109, (1994) AbstractWebsite
The first crystal structure of class III superoxide reductase from Treponema pallidum, Santos-Silva, T., Trincao J., Carvalho A. L., Bonifacio C., Auchere F., Raleiras P., Moura I., Moura J. J., and Romao M. J. , J Biol Inorg Chem, Jul, Volume 11, Number 5, p.548-58, (2006) AbstractWebsite

Superoxide reductase (SOR) is a metalloprotein containing a non-heme iron centre, responsible for the scavenging of superoxide radicals in the cell. The crystal structure of Treponema pallidum (Tp) SOR was determined using soft X-rays and synchrotron radiation. Crystals of the oxidized form were obtained using poly(ethylene glycol) and MgCl2 and diffracted beyond 1.55 A resolution. The overall architecture is very similar to that of other known SORs but TpSOR contains an N-terminal domain in which the desulforedoxin-type Fe centre, found in other SORs, is absent. This domain conserves the beta-barrel topology with an overall arrangement very similar to that of other SOR proteins where the centre is present. The absence of the iron ion and its ligands, however, causes a decrease in the cohesion of the domain and some disorder is observed, particularly in the region where the metal would be harboured. The C-terminal domain exhibits the characteristic immunoglobulin-like fold and harbours the Fe(His)4(Cys) active site. The five ligands of the iron centre are well conserved despite some disorder observed for one of the four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The participation of a glutamate as the sixth ligand of some of the iron centres in Pyrococcus furiosus SOR was not observed in TpSOR. A possible explanation is that either X-ray photoreduction occurred or there was a mixture of redox states at the start of data collection. In agreement with earlier proposals, details in the TpSOR structure also suggest that Lys49 might be involved in attraction of superoxide to the active site.

Flavodoxin and rubredoxin from Desulphovibrio salexigens, Moura, I., Moura J. J., Bruschi M., and Legall J. , Biochim Biophys Acta, Jun 10, Volume 591, Number 1, p.1-8, (1980) AbstractWebsite

A flavodoxin and a rubredoxin have been isolated from the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulphovibrio salexigens (strain British Guiana, NICB 8403). Their amino acid composition and spectral characteristics did not differ markedly from the homologous proteins presented in other Desulphovibrio spp. Flavodoxin was shown to be active in the electron transport of the sulfite reductase system.

Fluorescence anisotropy of fluorescein varies according to pH: lessons for binding studies, Castro, N. S. S., Laia C. A. T., Moura I., and Carepo M. S. , J Photochem Photobiol A: Chemistry, Volume 372, p.59-62, (2019)
Formate dehydrogenase from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774: Isolation and spectroscopic characterization of the active sites (heme, iron-sulfur centers and molybdenum), Costa, C., Teixeira M., Legall J., Moura J. J. G., and Moura I. , Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, Apr, Volume 2, Number 2, p.198-208, (1997) AbstractWebsite

An air-stable formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of formate to CO2, was purified from a sulfate-reducing organism, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774. The enzyme has a molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa (three different subunits: 88, 29 and 16 kDa) and contains three types of redox-active centers: four c-type hemes, nonheme iron arranged as two [4Fe-4S](2+/1+) centers and a molybdenum-pterin site. Selenium was also chemically detected. The enzyme specific activity is 78 units per mg of protein. Mo(V) EPR signals were observed in the native, reduced and formate-reacted states. EPR signals related to the presence of multiple low-spin hemes were also observed in the oxidized state. Upon reduction, an examination of the EPR data under appropriate conditions distinguishes two types of iron-sulfur centers, an [Fe-S] center I (g(max)=2.050, g(med)=1.947, g(min)=1.896) and an [Fe-S] center II (g(max)=2.071, g(med)=1.926, g(min)=1.865). Mossbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of four hemes in the low-spin state. The presence of two [4Fe-4S](2+/1+) centers was confirmed, one of these displaying very small hyperfine coupling constants in the +1 oxidation state. The midpoint redox potentials of the enzyme metal centers were also estimated.

The formate dehydrogenase isolated from the aerobe Methylobacterium sp. RXM is a molybdenum-containing protein, Duarte, R. O., Reis A. R., Girio F., Moura I., Moura J. J., and Collaco T. A. , Biochem Biophys Res Commun, Jan 3, Volume 230, Number 1, p.30-4, (1997) AbstractWebsite

The formate dehydrogenase (FDH) isolated from cells of Methylobacterium sp. RXM grown on molybdenum-containing mineral medium using methanol as carbon source, was partially purified (at least 90% pure as revealed by SDS-PAGE). The enzyme is unstable under oxygen and all the purification steps were conducted under strict anaerobic conditions. The molecular mass is 75 kDa (gel exclusion 300 kDa). The enzyme was characterized in terms of the kinetic parameters towards different substrates and electron acceptors, pH and temperature dependence and the effect of a wide range of compounds in the enzymatic activity. The EPR spectra of the dithionite reduced sample show, at low temperature (below 20 K), two rhombic EPR signals due to two distinct [Fe-S] centres (centre I at g-values 2.023, 1.951 and 1.933, and centre II at g-values 2.054 and 1.913). At high temperature (around 100 K) another rhombic EPR signal is optimally observed at g-values 2.002, 1.987 and 1.959 and attributed to the molybdenum site. The EPR signals assigned to the iron-sulfur centres show a strong analogy with the aldehyde oxido-reductase from Desulfovibrio gigas known to contain a Mo-pterin and two [2Fe-2S] centres and whose crystallographic structure was recently resolved.

Formation of a stable cyano-bridged dinuclear iron cluster following oxidation of the superoxide reductases from Treponema pallidum and Desulfovibrio vulgaris with K(3)Fe(CN)(6), Auchere, F., Raleiras P., Benson L., Venyaminov S. Y., Tavares P., Moura J. J., Moura I., and Rusnak F. , Inorg Chem, Feb 24, Volume 42, Number 4, p.938-40, (2003) AbstractWebsite

Superoxide reductases catalyze the monovalent reduction of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide. Spectroscopic evidence for the formation of a dinuclear cyano-bridged adduct after K(3)Fe(CN)(6) oxidation of the superoxide reductases neelaredoxin from Treponema pallidum and desulfoferrodoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris was reported. Oxidation with K(3)Fe(CN)(6) reveals a band in the near-IR with lambda(max) at 1020 nm, coupled with an increase of the iron content by almost 2-fold. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provided additional evidence with CN-stretching vibrations at 2095, 2025-2030, and 2047 cm(-)(1), assigned to a ferrocyanide adduct of the enzyme. Interestingly, the low-temperature electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of oxidized TpNlr reveal at least three different species indicating structural heterogeneity in the coordination environment of the active site Fe ion. Given the likely 6-coordinate geometry of the active site Fe(3+) ion in the ferrocyanide adduct, we propose that the rhombic EPR species can serve as a model of a hexacoordinate form of the active site.

Functional necessity and physicochemical characteristics of the 2Fe-2S cluster in mammalian ferrochelatase, Lloyd, S. G., Franco R., Moura J. J. G., Moura I., Ferreira G. C., and Huynh B. H. , Journal of the American Chemical Society, Oct 16, Volume 118, Number 41, p.9892-9900, (1996) AbstractWebsite

The recently discovered [2Fe-2S] cluster in mouse liver ferrochelatase has been characterized using UV-vis, EPR, and Mossbauer spectroscopic techniques. Studies are reported here for the recombinant protein purified from an overproducing transformed Escherichia coli strain. A positive correlation is observed between the presence of the [2Fe-2S] cluster and the enzymatic specific activity and demonstrates the necessity of this cofactor. Chemical analysis revealed that the preparations contained up to 1.3 Fe/molecule and indicated a 1:1 stoichiometry between Fe and acid-labile sulfide. The [2Fe-2S] cluster in the as-isolated ferrochelatase exhibits a UV-vis spectrum indicative of a [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster and is EPR-silent. The 8 T Mossbauer spectrum of the Fe-57-enriched as-isolated protein is well simulated by parameters Delta E(Q) = 0.69 +/- 0.03 mm/s and delta = 0.28 +/- 0.02 mm/s and confirms the presence of a diamagnetic ground state. Upon reduction with sodium dithionite, ferrochelatase shows a near-axial EPR spectrum with g-values of 2.00, 1.93, and 1.91, consistent with a S = 1/2 mixed valent Fe3+-Fe2+ cluster. The Orbach temperature dependence of the EPR line widths was used to provide an estimate of the exchange coupling J, which was determined to be on the order of 500-650 cm(-1) (+JS(1) . S-2 model). Redox titrations monitored by UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy revealed midpoint potentials of -390 +/- 10 and -405 +/- 10 mV, respectively. Mossbauer spectra of the sodium dithionite-reduced Fe-57-enriched ferrochelatase collected at 4.2 K in the presence of magnetic fields of 60 mT and 8 T strengths were analyzed in the mixed-valent S = 1/2 ground state. Parameters for the ferric site are Delta E(Q) = 1.2 +/- 0.2 mm/s and delta = 0.28 +/- 0.03 mm/s, with somewhat anisotropic hyperfine splittings; for the ferrous site, Delta E(Q) = 3.3 +/- 0.1 mm/s and delta = 0.67 +/- 0.04 mm/s with anisotropic hyperfine splittings characteristic of high-spin ferrous ion. The similarities and differences with other characterized [2Fe-2S](+) cluster-containing proteins are discussed.

The fundamental importance of basic science: examples of high-impact discoveries from an international Chemistry Network, Lopes, L. G. F., Sadler P. J., Bernardes-Génisson V., Moura J. J. G., Chauvin R., Bernhardt P. V., and Sousa E. H. S. , Quim Nova, Volume 43, p.1176-1189, (2020)
A further investigation of the cytochrome b5-cytochrome c complex, Banci, L., Bertini I., Felli I. C., Krippahl L., Kubicek K., Moura J. J., and Rosato A. , J Biol Inorg Chem, Sep, Volume 8, Number 7, p.777-86, (2003) AbstractWebsite

The interaction of reduced rabbit cytochrome b(5) with reduced yeast iso-1 cytochrome c has been studied through the analysis of (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectra, of (15)N longitudinal ( R(1)) and transverse ( R(2)) relaxation rates, and of the solvent exchange rates of protein backbone amides. For the first time, the adduct has been investigated also from the cytochrome c side. The analysis of the NMR data was integrated with docking calculations. The result is that cytochrome b(5) has two negative patches capable of interacting with a single positive surface area of cytochrome c. At low protein concentrations and in equimolar mixture, two different 1:1 adducts are formed. At high concentration and/or with excess cytochrome c, a 2:1 adduct is formed. All the species are in fast exchange on the scale of differences in chemical shift. By comparison with literature data, it appears that the structure of one 1:1 adduct changes with the origin or primary sequence of cytochrome b(5).