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Turner, DL, Salgueiro CA, Catarino T, Legall J, Xavier AV.  1996.  NMR Studies of Cooperativity in the Tetrahaem Cytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio vulgaris. European Journal of Biochemistry. 241(3):723-731. AbstractWebsite

The thermodynamic properties of the Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) tetrahaem cytochrome c3 (Dvc3) are rationalised by a model which involves both homotropic (e−/e−) and heterotropic (e−/H+) cooperativity. The paramagnetic shifts of a methyl group from each haem of the DVc3 have been determined in each stage of oxidation at several pH values by means of two-dimensional exchange NMR. The thermodynamic parameters are obtained by fitting the model to the NMR data and to redox titrations followed by visible spectroscopy. They show significant positive cooperativity between two of the haems whereas the remaining interactions appear to be largely electrostatic in origin. These parameters imply that the protein undergoes a proton-assisted two-electron transfer which can be used for energy transduction. Comparison with the crystal structure together with measurement of the kinetics of proton exchange suggest that the pH dependence is mediated by a charged residue(s) readily acessible to the solvent and close to haem I.

Turner, DL, Salgueiro CA, Catarino T, Legall J, Xavier AV.  1994.  Homotropic and heterotropic cooperativity in the tetrahaem cytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics. 1187(2):232-235. AbstractWebsite

The thermodynamic parameters which govern the homotropic (e−/e−) and heterotropic (e−/H+) cooperativity in the tetrahaem cytochrome c3 isolated from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) were determined, using the paramagnetic shifts of haem methyl groups in the NMR spectra of intermediate oxidized states at different pH levels. A model is put forward to explain how the network of positive and negative cooperativities between the four haems and acid/base group(s) enables the protein to achieve a proton-assisted 2e− step.

Turner, DL, Salgueiro CA, Legall J, Xavier AV.  1992.  Structural studies of Desulfovibrio vulgaris ferrocytochrome c3 by two-dimensional NMR. European Journal of Biochemistry. 210(3):931-936. AbstractWebsite

Two-dimensional NMR has been used to make specific assignments for the four haems in Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) ferrocytochrome c3 and to determine their haem core architecture. The NMR signals from the haem protons were assigned according to type using two-dimensional NMR experiments which led to four sets of signals, one for each of the haems. Specific assignments were obtained by calculating the ring current shifts which arise from other haems and aromatic residues. Observation of interhaem NOEs confirmed the assignments and established that the relative orientation of the haems is identical to that found in the crystal structure of D. vulgaris (Miyazaki F.) ferricytochrome c3. Assignments were also made for all the aromatic residues except for the haem ligands and F20, which is shifted under the main envelope of signals. The NOEs observed between these aromatic protons and haem protons confirm the similarity between the structures in solution and in the crystal. The assignments reported here are the basis for the cross-assignments of the four microscopic haem redox potentials to specific haems in the protein structure.

Turner, DL, Salgueiro CA, Schenkels P, Legall J, Xavier AV.  1995.  Carbon-13 NMR studies of the influence of axial ligand orientation on haem electronic structure. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology. 1246(1):24-28. AbstractWebsite

Three-quarters of the carbon-13 resonances of nuclei attached to the four haems of Desulfovibrio vulgaris ferricytochrome c3 are assigned. Preliminary analysis of their Fermi contact interactions shows that the shifts are directly related to the orientation of both of the axial histidine ligands in each case and the approach can therefore be used to obtain structural information in other cytochromes with bis-histidinyl coordination. The implications for the control of redox potential in cytochromes are discussed.

Todorovic, S, Leal SS, Salgueiro CA, Zebger I, Hildebrandt P, Murgida DH, Gomes CM.  2007.  A Spectroscopic Study of the Temperature Induced Modifications on Ferredoxin Folding and Iron−Sulfur Moieties. Biochemistry. 46(37):10733-10738. AbstractWebsite

Thermal perturbation of the dicluster ferredoxin from Acidianus ambivalens was investigated employing a toolbox of spectroscopic methods. FTIR and visible CD were used for assessing changes of the secondary structure and coarse alterations of the [3Fe4S] and [4Fe4S] cluster moieties, respectively. Fine details of the disassembly of the metal centers were revealed by paramagnetic NMR and resonance Raman spectroscopy. Overall, thermally induced unfolding of AaFd is initiated with the loss of α-helical content at relatively low temperatures (Tapp (m) ~ 44 °C), followed by the disruption of both iron−sulfur clusters (Tapp (m) ~ 53−60 °C). The degradation of the metal centers triggers major structural changes on the protein matrix, including the loss of tertiary contacts (Tapp (m) ~ 58 °C) and a change, rather than a significant net loss, of secondary structure (Tapp (m) ~ 60 °C). This latter process triggers a secondary structure reorganization that is consistent with the formation of a molten globule state. The combined spectroscopic approach here reported illustrates how changes in the metalloprotein organization are intertwined with disassembly of the iron−sulfur centers, denoting the conformational interplay of the protein backbone with cofactors.

Teixeira, LR, Cordas CM, Fonseca MP, Duke NEC, Pokkuluri PR, Salgueiro CA.  2020.  Modulation of the Redox Potential and Electron/Proton Transfer Mechanisms in the Outer Membrane Cytochrome OmcF From Geobacter sulfurreducens. Frontiers in Microbiology. 10:2941. AbstractWebsite

The monoheme outer membrane cytochrome F (OmcF) from Geobacter sulfurreducens plays an important role in Fe(III) reduction and electric current production. The electrochemical characterization of this cytochrome has shown that its redox potential is modulated by the solution pH (redox-Bohr effect) endowing the protein with the necessary properties to couple electron and proton transfer in the physiological range. The analysis of the OmcF structures in the reduced and oxidized states showed that with the exception of the side chain of histidine 47 (His47), all other residues with protonatable side chains are distant from the heme iron and, therefore, are unlikely to affect the redox potential of the protein. The protonatable site at the imidazole ring of His47 is in the close proximity to the heme and, therefore, this residue was suggested as the redox-Bohr center. In the present work, we tested this hypothesis by replacing the His47 with non-protonatable residues (isoleucine – OmcFH47I and phenylalanine – OmcFH47F). The structure of the mutant OmcFH47I was determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.13 Å resolution and showed only minimal changes at the site of the mutation. Both mutants were 15N-labeled and their overall folding was confirmed to be the same as the wild-type by NMR spectroscopy. The pH dependence of the redox potential of the mutants was measured by cyclic voltammetry. Compared to the wild-type protein, the magnitude of the redox-Bohr effect in the mutants was smaller, but not fully abolished, confirming the role of His47 on the pH modulation of OmcF’s redox potential. However, the pH effect on the heme substituents’ NMR chemical shifts suggested that the heme propionate P13 also contributes to the overall redox-Bohr effect in OmcF. In physiological terms, the contribution of two independent acid–base centers to the observed redox-Bohr effect confers OmcF a higher versatility to environmental changes by coupling electron/proton transfer within a wider pH range.

Teixeira, LR, Fernandes TM, Silva MA, Morgado L, Salgueiro CA.  2022.  Characterization of a novel cytochrome involved in Geobacter sulfurreducens’ electron harvesting pathways. Chemistry – A European Journal. n/a, Number n/a AbstractWebsite

Electron harvesting bacteria are key targets to develop microbial electrosynthesis technologies, which are valid alternatives for the production of value-added compounds without utilization of fossil fuels. Geobacter sulfurreducens, that is capable of donating and accepting electrons from electrodes, is one of the most promising electroactive bacteria. Its electron transfer mechanisms to electrodes have been progressively elucidated, however the electron harvesting pathways are still poorly understood. Previous studies showed that the periplasmic cytochromes PccH and GSU2515 are overexpressed in current-consuming G. sulfurreducens biofilms. PccH was characterized, though no putative partners have been identified. In this work, GSU2515 was characterized by complementary biophysical techniques and in silico simulations using the AlphaFold neural network. GSU2515 is a low-spin monoheme cytochrome with a disordered N-terminal region and an α-helical C-terminal domain harboring the heme group. The cytochrome undergoes a redox-linked heme axial ligand switch, with Met91 and His94 as distal axial ligand in the reduced and oxidized state, respectively. The reduction potential of the cytochrome is negative and is modulated by the pH in the physiological range: -78 mV at pH 6 and -113 mV at pH 7. Such pH-dependence coupled to the redox-linked switch of the axial ligand allows the cytochrome to drive a proton-coupled electron transfer step that is crucial to confer directionality to the respiratory chain. Biomolecular interactions and electron transfer experiments indicated that GSU2515 and PccH form a redox complex. Overall, the data obtained highlights for the first time how periplasmic proteins bridge the electron transfer between the outer and inner membrane in the electron harvesting pathways of G. sulfurreducens.

Teixeira, LR, Portela PC, Morgado L, Pantoja-Uceda D, Bruix M, Salgueiro CA.  2019.  Backbone assignment of cytochrome PccH, a crucial protein for microbial electrosynthesis in Geobacter sulfurreducens, 2019. Biomol NMR Assign. 13(2):321-326. AbstractWebsite

Microbial electrosynthesis is an emerging green technology that explores the capability of a particular group of microorganisms to drive their metabolism toward the production of hydrogen or value-added chemicals from electrons supplied by electrode surfaces. The cytochrome PccH showed the largest increase in transcription when electrons are supplied to Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms. Gene knock-out experiments have shown that the electron transfer toward G. sulfurreducens cells was completely inhibited by the deletion of the gene encoding for cytochrome PccH. This identifies a crucial role for this protein in G. sulfurreducens microbial electrosynthesis mechanisms, which are currently unknown. In this work, we present the backbone (1H, 13C and 15N) and heme assignment for PccH in the oxidized state. The data obtained paves the way to identify and structurally map the molecular interaction regions between the cytochrome PccH and its physiological redox partners.

Teixeira, LR, Dantas JM, Salgueiro CA, Cordas CM.  2018.  Thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the outer membrane cytochrome OmcF, a key protein for extracellular electron transfer in Geobacter sulfurreducens. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics. 1859(10):1132-1137. AbstractWebsite

Gene knock-out studies on Geobacter sulfurreducens have shown that the monoheme c-type cytochrome OmcF is essential for the extracellular electron transfer pathways involved in the reduction of iron and uranium oxy-hydroxides, as well as, on electricity production in microbial fuel cells. A detailed electrochemical characterization of OmcF was performed for the first time, allowing attaining kinetics and thermodynamic data. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant was determined at pH 7 (0.16 ± 0.01 cm s−1) indicating that the protein displays high electron transfer efficiency compared to other monoheme cytochromes. The pH dependence of the redox potential indicates that the protein has an important redox-Bohr effect in the physiological pH range for G. sulfurreducens growth. The analysis of the structures of OmcF allowed us to assign the redox-Bohr centre to the side chain of His47 residue and its pKa values in the reduced and oxidized states were determined (pKox = 6.73; pKred = 7.55). The enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy associated with the redox transaction were calculated, pointing the reduced form of the cytochrome as the most favourable. The data obtained indicate that G. sulfurreducens cells evolved to warrant a down-hill electron transfer from the periplasm to the outer-membrane associated cytochrome OmcF.

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Silveira, CM, Castro MA, Dantas JM, Salgueiro C, Murgida DH, Todorovic S.  2017.  Structure, electrocatalysis and dynamics of immobilized cytochrome PccH and its microperoxidase, 2017. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 19(13):8908-8918.: The Royal Society of Chemistry AbstractWebsite

Geobacter sulfurreducens cells have the ability to exchange electrons with conductive materials, and the periplasmic cytochrome PccH plays an essential role in the direct electrode-to-cell electron transfer in this bacterium. It has atypically low redox potential and unique structural features that differ from those observed in other c-type cytochromes. We report surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopic and electrochemical characterization of the immobilized PccH, together with molecular dynamics simulations that allow for the rationalization of experimental observations. Upon attachment to electrodes functionalized with partially or fully hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers, PccH displays a distribution of native and non-native heme spin configurations, similar to those observed in horse heart cytochrome c. The native structural and thermodynamic features of PccH are preserved upon attachment mixed hydrophobic (-CH3/-NH2) surfaces, while pure -OH, -NH2 and -COOH surfaces do not provide suitable platforms for its adsorption, indicating that its still unknown physiological redox partner might be membrane integrated. Neither of the employed immobilization strategies results in electrocatalytically active PccH capable of the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. Pseudoperoxidase activity is observed in immobilized microperoxidase, which is enzymatically produced from PccH and spectroscopically characterized. Further improvement of PccH microperoxidase stability is required for its application in electrochemical biosensing of hydrogen peroxide.

Silva, MA, Fernandes AP, Turner DL, Salgueiro CA.  2023.  A Biochemical Deconstruction-Based Strategy to Assist the Characterization of Bacterial Electric Conductive Filaments. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 24, Number 8 AbstractWebsite

Periplasmic nanowires and electric conductive filaments made of the polymeric assembly of c-type cytochromes from Geobacter sulfurreducens bacterium are crucial for electron storage and/or extracellular electron transfer. The elucidation of the redox properties of each heme is fundamental to the understanding of the electron transfer mechanisms in these systems, which first requires the specific assignment of the heme NMR signals. The high number of hemes and the molecular weight of the nanowires dramatically decrease the spectral resolution and make this assignment extremely complex or unattainable. The nanowire cytochrome GSU1996 ( 42 kDa) is composed of four domains (A to D) each containing three c-type heme groups. In this work, the individual domains (A to D), bi-domains (AB, CD) and full-length nanowire were separately produced at natural abundance. Sufficient protein expression was obtained for domains C ( 11 kDa/three hemes) and D ( 10 kDa/three hemes), as well as for bi-domain CD ( 21 kDa/six hemes). Using 2D-NMR experiments, the assignment of the heme proton NMR signals for domains C and D was obtained and then used to guide the assignment of the corresponding signals in the hexaheme bi-domain CD. This new biochemical deconstruction-based procedure, using nanowire GSU1996 as a model, establishes a new strategy to functionally characterize large multiheme cytochromes.

Silva, MA, Portela PC, Salgueiro CA.  2021.  Rational design of electron/proton transfer mechanisms in the exoelectrogenic bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens, 07. Biochemical Journal. 478:2871-2887., Number 14 AbstractWebsite

{The redox potential values of cytochromes can be modulated by the protonation/deprotonation of neighbor groups (redox-Bohr effect), a mechanism that permits the proteins to couple electron/proton transfer. In the respiratory chains, this effect is particularly relevant if observed in the physiological pH range, as it may contribute to the electrochemical gradient for ATP synthesis. A constitutively produced family of five triheme cytochromes (PpcA−E) from the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens plays a crucial role in extracellular electron transfer, a hallmark that permits this bacterium to be explored for several biotechnological applications. Two members of this family (PpcA and PpcD) couple electron/proton transfer in the physiological pH range, a feature not shared with PpcB and PpcE. That ability is crucial for G. sulfurreducens’ growth in Fe(III)-reducing habitats since extra contributors to the electrochemical gradient are needed. It was postulated that the redox-Bohr effect is determined by the nature of residue 6, a leucine in PpcA/PpcD and a phenylalanine in PpcB/PpcE. To confirm this hypothesis, Phe6 was replaced by leucine in PpcB and PpcE. The functional properties of these mutants were investigated by NMR and UV–visible spectroscopy to assess their capability to couple electron/proton transfer in the physiological pH range. The results obtained showed that the mutants have an increased redox-Bohr effect and are now capable of coupling electron/proton transfer. This confirms the determinant role of the nature of residue 6 in the modulation of the redox-Bohr effect in this family of cytochromes, opening routes to engineer Geobacter cells with improved biomass production.}

Silva, MA, Valente RC, Pokkuluri PR, Turner DL, Salgueiro CA, Catarino T.  2014.  Thermodynamic and kinetic characterization of two methyl-accepting chemotaxis heme sensors from Geobacter sulfurreducens reveals the structural origin of their functional difference. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1837(6):920-928. AbstractWebsite

The periplasmic sensor domains GSU582 and GSU935 are part of methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins of the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens containing one c-type heme and a PAS-like fold. Their spectroscopic properties were shown previously to share similar spectral features. In both sensors, the heme group is in the high-spin form in the oxidized state and low-spin after reduction and binding of a methionine residue. Therefore, it was proposed that this redox-linked ligand switch might be related to the signal transduction mechanism. We now report the thermodynamic and kinetic characterization of the sensors GSU582 and GSU935 by visible spectroscopy and stopped-flow techniques, at several pH and ionic strength values. Despite their similar spectroscopic features, the midpoint reduction potentials and the rate constants for reduction by dithionite are considerably different in the two sensors. The reduction potentials of both sensors are negative and well framed within the typical anoxic subsurface environments in which Geobacter species predominate. The midpoint reduction potentials of sensor GSU935 are lower than those of GSU582 at all pH and ionic strength values and the same was observed for the reduction rate constants. The origin of the different functional properties of these closely related sensors is rationalized in the terms of the structures. The results suggest that the sensors are designed to function in different working potential ranges, allowing the bacteria to trigger an adequate cellular response in different anoxic subsurface environments. These findings provide an explanation for the co-existence of two similar methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins in G. sulfurreducens.

Silva, MA, Salgueiro CA.  2021.  Multistep Signaling in Nature: A Close-Up of Geobacter Chemotaxis Sensing. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 22, Number 16 AbstractWebsite

Environmental changes trigger the continuous adaptation of bacteria to ensure their survival. This is possible through a variety of signal transduction pathways involving chemoreceptors known as methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP) that allow the microorganisms to redirect their mobility towards favorable environments. MCP are two-component regulatory (or signal transduction) systems (TCS) formed by a sensor and a response regulator domain. These domains synchronize transient protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events to convert the stimuli into an appropriate cellular response. In this review, the variability of TCS domains and the most common signaling mechanisms are highlighted. This is followed by the description of the overall cellular topology, classification and mechanisms of MCP. Finally, the structural and functional properties of a new family of MCP found in Geobacter sulfurreducens are revisited. This bacterium has a diverse repertoire of chemosensory systems, which represents a striking example of a survival mechanism in challenging environments. Two G. sulfurreducens MCP—GSU0582 and GSU0935—are members of a new family of chemotaxis sensor proteins containing a periplasmic PAS-like sensor domain with a c-type heme. Interestingly, the cellular location of this domain opens new routes to the understanding of the redox potential sensing signaling transduction pathways.

Silva, MA, Lucas TG, Salgueiro CA, Gomes CM.  2012.  Protein Folding Modulates the Swapped Dimerization Mechanism of Methyl-Accepting Chemotaxis Heme Sensors. PLoS ONE. 7(9):e46328. AbstractWebsite

The periplasmic sensor domains GSU0582 and GSU0935 are part of methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins in the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens. Both contain one c-type heme group and their crystal structures revealed that these domains form swapped dimers with a PAS fold formed from the two protein chains. The swapped dimerization of these sensors is related to the mechanism of signal transduction and the formation of the swapped dimer involves significant folding changes and conformational rearrangements within each monomeric component. However, the structural changes occurring during this process are poorly understood and lack a mechanistic framework. To address this issue, we have studied the folding and stability properties of two distinct heme-sensor PAS domains, using biophysical spectroscopies. We observed substantial differences in the thermodynamic stability (ΔG = 14.6 kJ.mol−1 for GSU0935 and ΔG = 26.3 kJ.mol−1 for GSU0582), and demonstrated that the heme moiety undergoes conformational changes that match those occurring at the global protein structure. This indicates that sensing by the heme cofactor induces conformational changes that rapidly propagate to the protein structure, an effect which is directly linked to the signal transduction mechanism. Interestingly, the two analyzed proteins have distinct levels of intrinsic disorder (25% for GSU0935 and 13% for GSU0582), which correlate with conformational stability differences. This provides evidence that the sensing threshold and intensity of the propagated allosteric effect is linked to the stability of the PAS-fold, as this property modulates domain swapping and dimerization. Analysis of the PAS-domain shows that disorder segments are found either at the hinge region that controls helix motions or in connecting segments of the β-sheet interface. The latter is known to be widely involved in both intra- and intermolecular interactions, supporting the view that it's folding and stability are at the basis of the specificity and regulation of many types of PAS-containing signaling proteins.

Saraiva, LM, Salgueiro CA, Legall J, van Dongen WMAM, Xavier AV.  1996.  Site-directed mutagenesis of a phenylalanine residue strictly conserved in cytochromes c3. Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry. 1(6):542-550. AbstractWebsite

Reduction of the haems in tetrahaem cytochromes c3 is a cooperative process, i.e., reduction of each of the haems depends on the redox states of the other haems. Furthermore, electron transfer is coupled to proton transfer (redox-Bohr effect). Two of its haems and a strictly conserved nearby phenylalanine residue, F20, in Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) cytochrome c3 form a structural motif that is present in all cytochromes c3 and also in cytochrome c oxidase. A putative role for this phenylalanine residue in the cooperativity of haem reduction was investigated. Therefore, this phenylalanine was replaced, with genetic techniques, by isoleucine and tyrosine in D. vulgaris (Hildenborough) cytochrome c3. Cyclic voltammetry studies revealed a small increase (30 mV) in one of the macroscopic redox potentials in the mutated cytochromes. EPR showed that the main alterations occurred in the vicinity of haem I, the haem closest to residue 20 and one of the haems responsible for positive cooperativities in electron transfer of D. vulgaris cytochrome c3. NMR studies of F20I cytochrome c3 demonstrated that the haem core architecture is maintained and that the more affected haem proton groups are those near the mutation site. NMR redox titrations of this mutated protein gave evidence for only small changes in the relative redox potentials of the haems. However, electron/electron and proton/electron cooperativity are maintained, indicating that this aromatic residue has no essential role in these processes. Furthermore, chemical modification of the N-terminal amino group of cytochrome c3 backbone, which is also very close to haem I, had no effect on the network of cooperativities.

Saraiva, LM, Salgueiro CA, da Costa PN, Messias AC, Legall J, van Dongen WMAM, Xavier AV.  1998.  Replacement of Lysine 45 by Uncharged Residues Modulates the Redox-Bohr Effect in Tetraheme Cytochrome c3 of Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough). Biochemistry. 37(35):12160-12165. AbstractWebsite

The structural basis for the pH dependence of the redox potential in the tetrahemic Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) cytochrome c3 was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis of charged residues in the vicinity of heme I. Mutation of lysine 45, located in the neighborhood of the propionates of heme I, by uncharged residues, namely threonine, glutamine and leucine, was performed. The replacement of a conserved charged residue, aspartate 7, present in the N-terminal region and near heme I was also attempted. The analysis of the redox interactions as well as the redox-Bohr behavior of the mutated cytochromes c3 allowed the conclusion that residue 45 has a functional role in the control of the pKa of the propionate groups of heme I and confirms the involvement of this residue in the redox-Bohr effect.

Santos, TC, de Oliveira AR, Dantas JM, Salgueiro CA, Cordas CM.  2015.  Thermodynamic and kinetic characterization of PccH, a key protein in microbial electrosynthesis processes in Geobacter sulfurreducens. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics. 1847:1113-1118., Number 10 AbstractWebsite

Abstract The monoheme c-type cytochrome PccH from Geobacter sulfurreducens, involved in the pathway of current-consumption in biofilms, was electrochemically characterized in detail. Cyclic voltammetry was used to determine the kinetics and thermodynamics properties of PccH redox behavior. Entropy, enthalpy and Gibbs free energy changes associated with the redox center transition between the ferric and the ferrous state were determined, indicating an enhanced solvent exposure. The midpoint redox potential is considerably low for a monoheme c-type cytochrome and the heterogeneous electron transfer constant rate reflects a high efficiency of electron transfer process in PccH. The midpoint redox potential dependence on the pH (redox-Bohr effect) was investigated, over the range of 2.5 to 9.1, and is described by the protonation/deprotonation events of two distinct centers in the vicinity of the heme group with pKa values of 2.7 (pKox1); 4.1 (pKred1) and 5.9 (pKox2); 6.4 (pKred2). Based on the inspection of PccH structure, these centers were assigned to heme propionic acids \{P13\} and P17, respectively. The observed redox-Bohr effect indicates that PccH is able to thermodynamically couple electron and proton transfer in the G. sulfurreducens physiological pH range.

Santos, TC, Silva MA, Morgado L, Dantas JM, Salgueiro CA.  2015.  Diving into the redox properties of Geobacter sulfurreducens cytochromes: a model for extracellular electron transfer. Dalton Trans. 44(20):9335-9344. AbstractWebsite

Geobacter bacteria have a remarkable respiratory versatility that includes the dissimilatory reduction of insoluble metal oxides in natural habitats and electron transfer to electrode surfaces from which electricity can be harvested. In both cases, electrons need to be exported from the cell interior to the exterior via a mechanism designated as extracellular electron transfer (EET). Several c-type cytochromes from G. sulfurreducens (Gs) were identified as key players in this process. Biochemical and biophysical data have been obtained for ten Gs cytochromes, including inner-membrane associated (MacA), periplasmic (PpcA, PpcB, PpcC, PpcD, PpcE and GSU1996) and outer membrane-associated (OmcF, OmcS and OmcZ). The redox properties of these cytochromes have been determined, except for PpcC and GSU1996. In this perspective, the reduction potentials of these two cytochromes were determined by potentiometric redox titrations followed by visible spectroscopy. The data obtained are taken together with those available for other key cytochromes to present a thorough overview of the current knowledge of Gs EET mechanisms and provide a possible rationalization for the existence of several multiheme cytochromes involved in the same respiratory pathways.

Salgueiro, CA, Dantas JM, Morgado L.  2019.  Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Selected Biological Applications. Radiation in Bioanalysis: Spectroscopic Techniques and Theoretical Methods. (Pereira, Alice S., Tavares, Pedro, Limão-Vieira, Paulo, Eds.).:245–286., Cham: Springer International Publishing Abstract

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is extremely powerful to study distinct biological systems ranging from biomolecules to specific metabolites. This chapter presents the basic concepts of the technique and illustrates its potential to study such systems. Similarly, to other spectroscopic techniques, the theoretical background of NMR is sustained by detailed mathematics and physical chemistry concepts, which were kept to the minimum. The intent is to introduce the fundamentals of the technique to science students from different backgrounds. The basic concepts of NMR spectroscopy are briefly presented in the first section, and the following sections describe applications in the biosciences field, using electron transfer proteins as model, particularly cytochromes. The heme groups endow cytochromes with particular features making them excellent examples to illustrate the high versatility of NMR spectroscopy. The main methodologies underlying protein solution structure determination are discussed in the second section. This is followed by a description of the main experiments explored to structurally map protein-protein or protein-ligand interface regions in molecular complexes. Finally, it is shown how NMR spectroscopy can assist in the functional characterization of multiheme cytochromes.

Salgueiro, CA, Morgado L, Fonseca B, Lamosa P, Catarino T, Turner DL, Louro RO.  2005.  Binding of ligands originates small perturbations on the microscopic thermodynamic properties of a multicentre redox protein. FEBS Journal. 272(9):2251-2260. AbstractWebsite

NMR and visible spectroscopy coupled to redox measurements were used to determine the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of the four haems in cytochrome c3 under conditions in which the protein was bound to ligands, the small anion phosphate and the protein rubredoxin with the iron in the active site replaced by zinc. Comparison of these results with data for the isolated cytochrome shows that binding of ligands causes only small changes in the reduction potentials of the haems and their pairwise interactions, and also that the redox-sensitive acid–base centre responsible for the redox–Bohr effect is essentially unaffected. Although neither of the ligands tested is a physiological partner of cytochrome c3, the small changes observed for the thermodynamic properties of cytochrome c3 bound to these ligands vs. the unbound state, indicate that the thermodynamic properties measured for the isolated protein are relevant for a physiological interpretation of the role of this cytochrome in the bioenergetic metabolism of Desulfovibrio.

Salgueiro, CA, Morgado L, Silva MA, Ferreira MR, Fernandes TM, Portela PC.  2022.  From iron to bacterial electroconductive filaments: Exploring cytochrome diversity using Geobacter bacteria. Coordination Chemistry Reviews. 452:214284. AbstractWebsite

Iron is the most versatile of all biochemically active metals, with variability encompassing its electronic configuration, number of unpaired electrons, type of ligands and iron-complexes stability. The versatility of iron properties is transposed to the proteins it can be associated to, especially relevant in the case of heme proteins. In this Review, the structural and functional properties of heme proteins are revisited, with particular focus on c-type cytochromes. The genome of Geobacter bacteria encodes for an unusually high number of assorted c-type cytochromes and, for this reason, they are used in this Review as a showcase of the cytochrome diversity. In the last decades, a vast portfolio of cytochromes has been revealed in these bacteria, with most of them defining new classes, ranging from monoheme to the recently identified polymeric assembly of multiheme cytochromes that forms micrometer-long electrically conductive filaments. These discoveries were on pace with the development of modern NMR equipment and advances in protein isotopic labeling methods, which are also revisited in this Review. Finally, following the description of the current state of the art of Geobacter cytochromes, examples on how the available structural and functional information was explored to structurally map protein–protein and protein–ligand interacting regions in redox complexes, and hence elucidate Geobacter’s respiratory pathways, are presented.

Salgueiro, CA, da Costa PN, Turner DL, Messias AC, van Dongen WMAM, Saraiva LM, Xavier AV.  2001.  Effect of Hydrogen-Bond Networks in Controlling Reduction Potentials in Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) Cytochrome c3 Probed by Site-Specific Mutagenesis. Biochemistry. 40(32):9709-9716. AbstractWebsite

Cytochromes c3 isolated from Desulfovibrio spp. are periplasmic proteins that play a central role in energy transduction by coupling the transfer of electrons and protons from hydrogenase. Comparison between the oxidized and reduced structures of cytochrome c3 isolated from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) show that the residue threonine 24, located in the vicinity of heme III, reorients between these two states [Messias, A. C., Kastrau, D. H. W., Costa, H. S., LeGall, J., Turner, D. L., Santos, H., and Xavier, A. V. (1998) J. Mol. Biol. 281, 719−739]. Threonine 24 was replaced with valine by site-directed mutagenesis to elucidate its effect on the redox properties of the protein. The NMR spectra of the mutated protein are very similar to those of the wild type, showing that the general folding and heme core architecture are not affected by the mutation. However, thermodynamic analysis of the mutated cytochrome reveals a large alteration in the microscopic reduction potential of heme III (75 and 106 mV for the protonated forms of the fully reduced and oxidized states, respectively). The redox interactions involving this heme are also modified, while the remaining heme−heme interactions and the redox−Bohr interactions are less strongly affected. Hence, the order of oxidation of the hemes in the mutated cytochrome is different from that in the wild type, and it has a higher overall affinity for electrons. This is consistent with the replacement of threonine 24 by valine preventing the formation of a network of hydrogen bonds, which stabilizes the oxidized state. The mutated protein is unable to perform a concerted two-electron step between the intermediate oxidation stages, 1 and 3, which can occur in the wild-type protein. Thus, replacing a single residue unbalances the global network of cooperativities tuned to control thermodynamically the directionality of the stepwise electron transfer and may affect the functionality of the protein.

Salgueiro, CA, Turner DL, Legall J, Xavier AV, Legall J.  1997.  Reevaluation of the redox and redox-Bohr cooperativity in tetrahaem Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Miyazaki F) cytochrome c3. Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry. 2(3):343-349. AbstractWebsite

The thermodynamic model of five interacting charge centres (four haems and an ionisable centre), which was used in the characterisation of the thermodynamic properties of Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) cytochrome c3 (c3DvH), is now used to reevaluate the thermodynamic properties in Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Miyazaki F) cytochrome c3 (c3DvM) on the basis of published data (Park, J.-S., Ohmura, T., Kano, K., Sagara, T., Niki, K., Kyogoku, Y. and Akutsu, H. (1996) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1293, 45–54). Contrary to the assertion of Park et al. (1996), the pH dependence of the proton chemical shifts of haem methyls in c3DvM in several stages of oxidation is well described by the model, which involves both homotropic (e–/e–) and heterotropic (e–/H+) cooperativity. This shows that the pH dependence observed for c3DvM is not significantly more complicated than that observed for c3DvH. Since the parameters which we now obtain for c3DvM are generated with the same model as those from c3DvH, albeit using less precise data, it is possible to make a preliminary comparison of the thermodynamic properties of these two proteins and of their role in energy transduction.
The extrinsic dipolar shifts generated for each methyl group by each of the four haems in c3DvM are also determined. A novel method for approximating the magnetic susceptibility tensors is used: the orientations of the principal axes of the tensors have been shown to be closely related to the geometry of the axial ligands, which is available from the X-ray structure of c3DvM, and the components of the tensors are extrapolated from EPR g values. The inclusion of the calculated haem extrinsic contributions clearly describes the pH dependence of the haem methyls in the core of the protein, close to other haems. This description is most remarkable in the case of the haem methyl 21CH3 II I, for which the "unusual pH dependence" commented on by Park et al. (1996) is easily explained using the thermodynamic parameters determined by our model together with the calculated extrinsic dipolar shifts, thus providing a test of the analysis.

Salgueiro, CA, Turner DL, Xavier AV.  1997.  Use of Paramagnetic NMR Probes for Structural Analysis in Cytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio Vulgaris. European Journal of Biochemistry. 244(3):721-734. AbstractWebsite

The dipolar field generated by each of the four haems in the tetrahaem ferricytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) (c3DvH) is determined by means of a novel procedure. In this method the 13C chemical shifts of the nuclei directly bound to the haems are used to determine the in-plane orientations of the rhombic perturbation in each of the four haems with respect to a model of molecular orbitals of eg symmetry which are subject to a rhombic perturbation [Turner, D. L., Salgueiro, C. A., Schenkels, P., LeGall, J. & Xavier, A. V. (1995) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1246, 24–28]. These orientations, together with the components of the magnetic susceptibility tensors obtained from the EPR g values and the crystal structure of c3DvH, can be used to calculate the dipolar shifts induced by each haem throughout the protein. Thus the observed 13C paramagnetic shifts of the c3DvH haem substituents were fitted considering both the pseudocontact and contact shifts of each haem simultaneously. The dipolar shifts calculated by this method were tested against the observed dipolar shifts for some amino acid residues strategically placed in the protein and also for the haem propionate groups. The effect of considering the calculated dipolar extrinsic shifts on the behaviour of the chemical shifts of the haem methyl groups in the intermediate stages of oxidation at different pH values was also analysed. The several tests applied to the calculated dipolar shifts have shown that the method is extremely useful for predicting chemical shifts as an aid to complete proton assignment, and to add further constraints in the refinement of solution structures of paramagnetic proteins and hence to probe subtle structural rearrangements around the haem pocket.