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Hexaheme nitrite reductase from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. Mossbauer and EPR characterization of the heme groups, Costa, C., Moura J. J., Moura I., Liu M. Y., Peck, H. D. Jr., Legall J., Wang Y. N., and Huynh B. H. , J Biol Chem, Aug 25, Volume 265, Number 24, p.14382-8, (1990) AbstractWebsite

Mossbauer and EPR spectroscopy were used to characterize the heme prosthetic groups of the nitrite reductase isolated from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 27774), which is a membrane-bound multiheme cytochrome capable of catalyzing the 6-electron reduction of nitrite to ammonia. At pH 7.6, the as-isolated enzyme exhibited a complex EPR spectrum consisting of a low-spin ferric heme signal at g = 2.96, 2.28, and 1.50 plus several broad resonances indicative of spin-spin interactions among the heme groups. EPR redox titration studies revealed yet another low-spin ferric heme signal at g = 3.2 and 2.14 (the third g value was undetected) and the presence of a high-spin ferric heme. Mossbauer measurements demonstrated further that this enzyme contained six distinct heme groups: one high-spin (S = 5/2) and five low-spin (S = 1/2) ferric hemes. Characteristic hyperfine parameters for all six hemes were obtained through a detailed analysis of the Mossbauer spectra. D. desulfuricans nitrite reductase can be reduced by chemical reductants, such as dithionite or reduced methyl viologen, or by hydrogenase under hydrogen atmosphere. Addition of nitrite to the fully reduced enzyme reoxidized all five low-spin hemes to their ferric states. The high-spin heme, however, was found to complex NO, suggesting that the high-spin heme could be the substrate binding site and that NO could be an intermediate present in an enzyme-bound form.

Purification and characterization of bisulfite reductase (desulfofuscidin) from Desulfovibrio thermophilus and its complexes with exogenous ligands, Fauque, G., Lino A. R., Czechowski M., Kang L., Dervartanian D. V., Moura J. J., Legall J., and Moura I. , Biochim Biophys Acta, Aug 1, Volume 1040, Number 1, p.112-8, (1990) AbstractWebsite

A dissimilatory bisulfite reductase has been purified from a thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio thermophilus (DSM 1276) and studied by EPR and optical spectroscopic techniques. The visible spectrum of the purified bisulfite reductase exhibits absorption maxima at 578.5, 392.5 and 281 nm with a weak band around 700 nm. Photoreduction of the native enzyme causes a decrease in absorption at 578.5 nm and a concomitant increase in absorption at 607 nm. When reduced, the enzyme reacts with cyanide, sulfite, sulfide and carbon monoxide to give stable complexes. The EPR spectrum of the native D. thermophilus bisulfite reductase shows the presence of a high-spin ferric signal with g values at 7.26, 4.78 and 1.92. Upon photoreduction the high-spin ferric heme signal disappeared and a typical 'g = 1.94' signal of [4Fe-4S] type cluster appeared. Chemical analyses show that the enzyme contains four sirohemes and eight [4Fe-4S] centers per mol of protein. The molecular mass determined by gel filtration was found to be 175 kDa. On SDS-gel electrophoresis the enzyme presents a main band of 44 to 48 kDa. These results suggest that the bisulfite reductase contains probably one siroheme and two [4Fe-4S] centers per monomer. The dissimilatory bisulfite reductase from D. thermophilus presents some homologous properties with desulfofuscidin, the bisulfite reductase isolated from Thermodesulfobacterium commune (Hatchikian, E.C. and Zeikus, J.G. (1983) J. Bacteriol. 153, 1211-1220).

The iron-sulfur centers of the soluble [NiFeSe] hydrogenase, from Desulfovibrio baculatus (DSM 1743). EPR and Mossbauer characterization, Teixeira, M., Moura I., Fauque G., Dervartanian D. V., Legall J., Peck, H. D. Jr., Moura J. J., and Huynh B. H. , Eur J Biochem, Apr 30, Volume 189, Number 2, p.381-6, (1990) AbstractWebsite

The soluble (cytoplasmic plus periplasmic) Ni/Fe-S/Se-containing hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio baculatus (DSM 1743) was purified from cells grown in an 57Fe-enriched medium, and its iron-sulfur centers were extensively characterized by Mossbauer and EPR spectroscopies. The data analysis excludes the presence of a [3Fe-4S] center, either in the native (as isolated) or in the hydrogen-reduced states. In the native state, the non-heme iron atoms are arranged as two diamagnetic [4Fe-4S]2+ centers. Upon reduction, these two centers exhibit distinct and unusual Mossbauer spectroscopic parameters. The centers were found to have similar mid-point potentials (approximately -315 mV) as determined by oxidation-reduction titratins followed by EPR.

Spin-equilibrium and heme-ligand alteration in a high-potential monoheme cytochrome (cytochrome c554) from Achromobacter cycloclastes, a denitrifying organism, Saraiva, L. M., Liu M. Y., Payne W. J., Legall J., Moura J. J., and Moura I. , Eur J Biochem, Apr 30, Volume 189, Number 2, p.333-41, (1990) AbstractWebsite

A c-type monoheme cytochrome c554 (13 kDa) was isolated from cells of Achromobacter cycloclastes IAM 1013 grown anaerobically as a denitrifier. The visible absorption spectrum indicates the presence of a band at 695 nm characteristic of heme-methionine coordination (low-spin form) coexisting with a minor high-spin form as revealed by the contribution at 630 nm. Magnetic susceptibility measurements support the existence of a small contribution of a high-spin form at all pH values, attaining a minimum at intermediate pH values. The mid-point redox potential determined by visible spectroscopy at pH 7.2 is +150 mV. The pH-dependent spin equilibrum and other relevant structural features were studied by 300-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy. In the oxidized form, the 1H-NMR spectrum shows pH dependence with pKa values at 5.0 and 8.9. According to these pKa values, three forms designated as I, II and III can be attributed to cytochrome c554. Forms I and II predominate at low pH values, and the 1H-NMR spectra reveal heme methyl proton resonances between 40 ppm and 22 ppm. These forms have a methionyl residue as a sixth ligand, and C6 methyl group of the bound methionine was identified in the low-field region of the NMR spectra. Above pH 9.6, form III predominates and the 1H-NMR spectrum is characterized by down-field hyperfine-shifted heme methyl proton resonances between 29 ppm and 22 ppm. Two new resonances are observed at congruent to 66 ppm and 54 ppm, and are taken as indicative of a new type of heme coordination (probably a lysine residue). These pH-dependent features of the 1H-NMR spectra are discussed in terms of the heme environment structure. The chemical shifts of the methyl resonances at different pH values exhibit anti-Curie temperature dependence. In the ferrous state, the 1H-NMR spectrum shows a methyl proton resonance at -3.9 ppm characteristic of methionine axial ligation. The electron-transfer rate between ferric and ferrous forms has been estimated to be smaller than 2 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 at pH 5. EPR spectroscopy was also used to probe the ferric heme environment. A prominent signal at gmax congruent to 3.58 and the overall lineshape of the spectrum indicate an almost axial heme environment.

Metal ion binding of copper(II), zinc(II) and lead(II) to cytochrome C, Simões Gonçalves, M. L. S., Lopes da Conceição A. C., and Moura J. J. G. , Electrochimica Acta, Volume 35, Number 2, p.473-478, (1990) AbstractWebsite
Redox intermediates of Desulfovibrio gigas [NiFe] hydrogenase generated under hydrogen. Mossbauer and EPR characterization of the metal centers, Teixeira, M., Moura I., Xavier A. V., Moura J. J., Legall J., Dervartanian D. V., Peck, H. D. Jr., and Huynh B. H. , J Biol Chem, Oct 5, Volume 264, Number 28, p.16435-50, (1989) AbstractWebsite

The hydrogenase (EC of Desulfovibrio gigas is a complex enzyme containing one nickel center, one [3Fe-4S] and two [4Fe-4S] clusters. Redox intermediates of this enzyme were generated under hydrogen (the natural substrate) using a redox-titration technique and were studied by EPR and Mossbauer spectroscopy. In the oxidized states, the two [4Fe-4S]2+ clusters exhibit a broad quadrupole doublet with parameters (apparent delta EQ = 1.10 mm/s and delta = 0.35 mm/s) typical for this type of cluster. Upon reduction, the two [4Fe-4S]1+ clusters are spectroscopically distinguishable, allowing the determination of their midpoint redox potentials. The cluster with higher midpoint potential (-290 +/- 20 mV) was labeled Fe-S center I and the other with lower potential (-340 +/- 20 mV), Fe-S center II. Both reduced clusters show atypical magnetic hyperfine coupling constants, suggesting structural differences from the clusters of bacterial ferredoxins. Also, an unusually broad EPR signal, labeled Fe-S signal B', extending from approximately 150 to approximately 450 mT was observed concomitantly with the reduction of the [4Fe-4S] clusters. The following two EPR signals observed at the weak-field region were tentatively attributed to the reduced [3Fe-4S] cluster: (i) a signal with crossover point at g approximately 12, labeled the g = 12 signal, and (ii) a broad signal at the very weak-field region (approximately 3 mT), labeled the Fe-S signal B. The midpoint redox potential associated with the appearance of the g = 12 signal was determined to be -70 +/- 10 mV. At potentials below -250 mV, the g = 12 signal began to decrease in intensity, and simultaneously, the Fe-S signal B appeared. The transformation of the g = 12 signal into the Fe-S signal B was found to parallel the reduction of the two [4Fe-4S] clusters indicating that the [3Fe-4S]o cluster is sensitive to the redox state of the [4Fe-4S] clusters. Detailed redox profiles for the previously reported Ni-signal C and the g = 2.21 signal were obtained in this study, and evidence was found to indicate that these two signals represent two different oxidation states of the enzyme. Finally, the mechanistic implications of our results are discussed.

Electron transport in sulfate-reducing bacteria. Molecular modeling and NMR studies of the rubredoxin--tetraheme-cytochrome-c3 complex, Stewart, D. E., Legall J., Moura I., Moura J. J., Peck, H. D. Jr., Xavier A. V., Weiner P. K., and Wampler J. E. , Eur J Biochem, Nov 20, Volume 185, Number 3, p.695-700, (1989) AbstractWebsite

A hypothetical model of the complex formed between the iron-sulfur protein rubredoxin and the tetraheme cytochrome c3 from the sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) has been proposed utilizing computer graphic modeling, computational methods and NMR spectroscopy. The proposed complex appears feasible on the basis of complementary electrostatic interaction and steric factors and is consistent with the data from NMR experiments. In this model, the non-heme iron atom of rubredoxin is in close proximity to heme 1 of cytochrome c3. The complex is stabilized by charge-pair interactions and hydrogen bonds. This complex is compared to the flavodoxin-cytochrome c3 complex previously proposed [Stewart, D. E., LeGall, J., Moura, I., Moura, J. J. G., Peck, H. D. Jr, Xavier, A. V., Weiner, P. K. & Wampler, J. E. (1988) Biochemistry 27, 2444-2450] and new NMR data shows that both proteins interact with the same heme group of the cytochrome as postulated.

The Role Of Nickel And Iron Sulfur Centers In The Bioproduction Of Hydrogen, Moura, J. J. G., Teixeira M., and Moura I. , Pure and Applied Chemistry, May, Volume 61, Number 5, p.915-921, (1989) AbstractWebsite
Redox properties of the diheme cytochrome c4 from Azotobacter vinelandii and characterisation of the two hemes by NMR, MCD and EPR spectroscopy, Gadsby, P. M., Hartshorn R. T., Moura J. J., Sinclair-Day J. D., Sykes A. G., and Thomson A. J. , Biochim Biophys Acta, Jan 19, Volume 994, Number 1, p.37-46, (1989) AbstractWebsite

From biphasic stopped-flow kinetic studies it has been established that the two heme centres of cytochrome c4 from Azotobacter vinelandii undergo redox change with [Co(terpy)2]3+/2+ (260 mV) at different rates. Rate constants for oxidation and reduction at pH 7.5 give reduction potentials for the two heme centres in agreement with previous values from spectrophotometric titrations (263 and 317 mV). From NMR studies on the fully reduced protein two sharp methyl methionine resonances are observed at -3.16 and -3.60 ppm, consistent with axial methionine coordination. On titration with [Fe(CN)6]3- the -3.16 ppm resonance is the first to disappear, and is assigned to the less positive reduction potential. Line-broadening effects are observed on partial oxidation, which are dominated by intermolecular processes in an intermediate time-range exchange process. The hemes of the oxidised protein are distinguishable by EPR g-values of 3.64 and 3.22. The former is of interest because it is at an unusually low field for histidine/methionine coordination, and has an asymmetric or ramp shape. The latter assigned to the low potential heme is similar to that of a cytochrome c551. The MCD spectra of the fully oxidised protein are typical of low-spin Fe(III) heme centres, with a negative peak at 710 nm characteristic of methionine coordination, and an NIR peak at 1900 nm characteristic of histidine/methionine (axial) coordination. Of the four histidines per molecule only two undergo diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC) modification.

Evidence for selenocysteine coordination to the active site nickel in the [NiFeSe]hydrogenases from Desulfovibrio baculatus, Eidsness, M. K., Scott R. A., Prickril B. C., Dervartanian D. V., Legall J., Moura I., Moura J. J., and Peck, H. D. Jr. , Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, Jan, Volume 86, Number 1, p.147-51, (1989) AbstractWebsite

Ni and Se x-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of the [NiFeSe]hydrogenases from Desulfovibrio baculatus are described. The Ni site geometry is pseudo-octahedral with a coordinating ligand composition of 3-4 (N,O) at 2.06 A, 1-2 (S,Cl) at 2.17 A, and 1 Se at 2.44 A. The Se coordination environment consists of 1 C at 2.0 A and a heavy scatterer M (M = Ni or Fe) at approximately 2.4 A. These results are interpreted in terms of a selenocysteine residue coordinated to the Ni site. The possible role of the Ni-Se site in the catalytic activation of H2 is discussed.

EPR studies with 77Se-enriched (NiFeSe) hydrogenase of Desulfovibrio baculatus. Evidence for a selenium ligand to the active site nickel, He, S. H., Teixeira M., Legall J., Patil D. S., Moura I., Moura J. J., Dervartanian D. V., Huynh B. H., and Peck, H. D. Jr. , J Biol Chem, Feb 15, Volume 264, Number 5, p.2678-82, (1989) AbstractWebsite

The periplasmic hydrogenase containing equivalent amounts of nickel and selenium plus non-heme iron [NiFeSe) hydrogenase) has been purified from cells of the sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio baculatus (DSM 1748) grown on a lactate/sulfate medium containing natural Se isotopes and the nuclear isotope, 77Se. Both the 77Se-enriched and unenriched hydrogenases were shown to be free of other hydrogenases and characterized with regard to their Se contents. EPR studies of the reduced nickel signal generated by redox titrations of the enriched and unenriched (NiFeSe) hydrogenases demonstrated that the gx = 2.23 and gy = 2.17 resonances are appreciably broadened by the spin of the 77Se nucleus (I = 1/2). This observation demonstrates unambiguously that the unpaired electron is shared by the Ni and Se atoms and that Se serves as a ligand to the nickel redox center of the (NiFeSe) hydrogenase.

Assignment of individual heme EPR signals of Desulfovibrio baculatus (strain 9974) tetraheme cytochrome c3. A redox equilibria study, Moura, I., Teixeira M., Huynh B. H., Legall J., and Moura J. J. , Eur J Biochem, Sep 15, Volume 176, Number 2, p.365-9, (1988) AbstractWebsite

An EPR redox titration was performed on the tetraheme cytochrome c3 isolated from Desulfovibrio baculatus (strain 9974), a sulfate-reducer. Using spectral differences at different poised redox states of the protein, it was possible to individualize the EPR g-values of each of the four hemes and also to determine the mid-point redox potentials of each individual heme: heme 4 (-70 mV) at gmax = 2.93, gmed = 2.26 and gmin = 1.51; heme 3 (-280 mV) at gmax = 3.41; heme 2 (-300 mV) at gmax = 3.05, gmed = 2.24 and gmin = 1.34; and heme 1 (-355 mV) at gmx = 3.18. A previously described multi-redox equilibria model used for the interpretation of NMR data of D. gigas cytochrome c3 [Santos, H., Moura, J.J.G., Moura, I., LeGall, J. & Xavier, A. V. (1984) Eur. J. Biochem. 141, 283-296] is discussed in terms of the EPR results.

Chromosome aberrations in cattle raised on bracken fern pasture, Moura, J. W., Stocco dos Santos R. C., Dagli M. L., D'Angelino J. L., Birgel E. H., and Becak W. , Experientia, Sep 15, Volume 44, Number 9, p.785-8, (1988) AbstractWebsite

Thirteen cows maintained on natural bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) were analyzed cytogenetically. The frequency of structural chromosome aberrations detected in peripheral blood cells was significantly higher when compared to that detected in animals raised on pasture containing no bracken fern. We discuss the clastogenic action of fern and its synergistic action with infection by type 2 and 4 papilloma virus in the same animals.

Spectroscopic characterization of a high-potential monohaem cytochrome from Wolinella succinogenes, a nitrate-respiring organism. Redox and spin equilibria studies, Moura, I., Liu M. Y., Costa C., Liu M. C., Pai G., Xavier A. V., Legall J., Payne W. J., and Moura J. J. , Eur J Biochem, Nov 15, Volume 177, Number 3, p.673-82, (1988) AbstractWebsite

When purified, a high-potential c-type monohaem cytochrome from the nitrate-respiring organism, Wollinella succinogenes (VPI 10659), displayed a minimum molecular mass of 8.2 kDa and 0.9 mol iron and 0.95 mol haem groups/mol protein. Visible light spectroscopy suggested the presence of an equilibrium between two ligand arrangements around the haem, i.e. an absorption band at 695 nm characteristic of haem-methionine coordination (low-spin form) coexisting with a high-spin form revealed by a band at 619 nm and a shoulder at 498 nm. The mid-point redox potential measured by visible redox titration of the low-spin form was approximately +100 mV. Binding cyanide (Ka = 5 x 10(5) M-1) resulted in the displacement of the methionyl axial residue, and full conversion to a low-spin, cyanide-bound form. Structural features were studied by 300-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy. In the oxidized state, the pH dependence of the haem methyl resonances (pH range 5-10) and the magnetic susceptibility measurements (using an NMR method) were consistent with the visible light spectroscopic data for the presence of a high-spin/low-spin equilibrium with a transition pKa of 7.3. The spin equilibrium was fast on the NMR time scale. The haem methyl resonances presented large downfield chemical shifts. An unusually broad methyl resonance at around 35 ppm (pH = 7.5, 25 degrees C) was extremely temperature-dependent [delta(323 K) - delta(273 K) = 7.2 ppm] and was assigned to the S-CH3 group of the axial methionine. In the ferrous state only a low-spin form is present. The haem meso protons, the methyl group and the methylene protons from the axial methionine were identified in the reduced form. The resonances from the aromatic residues (three tyrosines and one phenylalanine) were also assigned. Detailed monitoring of the NMR-redox pattern of the monohaem cytochrome from the fully reduced up to the fully oxidized state revealed that the rate of the intermolecular electronic exchange process was approximately 6 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 at 303 K and pH = 6.31. A dihaem cytochrome also present in the crude cell extract and purified to a homogeneous state, exhibited a molecular mass of 11 kDa and contained 2.43 mol iron and 1.89 mol haem c moieties/mol cytochrome. The absorption spectrum in the visible region exhibited no band at 695 nm, suggesting that methione is not a ligand for either of the two haems. Recovery of only small amounts of this protein prevented more detailed structural analyzes.

Isolation and characterization of rubrerythrin, a non-heme iron protein from Desulfovibrio vulgaris that contains rubredoxin centers and a hemerythrin-like binuclear iron cluster, Legall, J., Prickril B. C., Moura I., Xavier A. V., Moura J. J., and Huynh B. H. , Biochemistry, Mar 8, Volume 27, Number 5, p.1636-42, (1988) AbstractWebsite

A new non-heme iron protein from the periplasmic fraction of Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenbourough NCIB 8303) has been purified to homogeneity, and its amino acid composition, molecular weight, redox potential, iron content, and optical, EPR, and Mossbauer spectroscopic properties have been determined. This new protein is composed of two identical subunits with subunit molecular weight of 21,900 and contains four iron atoms per molecule. The as-purified oxidized protein exhibits an optical spectrum with absorption maxima at 492, 365, and 280 nm, and its EPR spectrum shows resonances at g = 4.3 and 9.4, characteristic of oxidized rubredoxin. The Mossbauer data indicate the presence of approximately equal amounts of two types of iron; we named them the Rd-like and the Hr-like iron due to their similarity to the iron centers of rubredoxins (Rds) and hemerythrins (Hrs), respectively. For the Rd-like iron, the measured fine and hyperfine parameters (D = 1.5 cm-1, E/D = 0.26, delta EQ = -0.55 mm/s, delta = 0.27 mm/s, Axx/gn beta n = -16.5 T, Ayy/gn beta n = -15.6 T, and Azz/gn beta n = -17.0 T) are almost identical with those obtained for the rubredoxin from Clostridium pasteurianum. Redox-titration studies monitored by EPR, however, showed that these Rd-like centers have a midpoint redox potential of +230 +/- 10 mV, approximately 250 mV more positive than those reported for rubredoxins. Another unusual feature of this protein is the presence of the Hr-like iron atoms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Magnetization of the oxidized and reduced three-iron cluster of Desulfovibrio gigas ferredoxin II, Day, E. P., Peterson J., Bonvoisin J. J., Moura I., and Moura J. J. , J Biol Chem, Mar 15, Volume 263, Number 8, p.3684-9, (1988) AbstractWebsite

The saturation magnetizations of the three iron cluster of ferredoxin II of Desulfovibrio gigas in both the oxidized and reduced states have been studied at fixed magnetic fields up to 4.5 tesla over the temperature range from 1.8 to 200 K. The low field (0.3 tesla) susceptibility of oxidized ferredoxin II obeys the Curie law over this entire temperature range. This establishes -2Jox greater than 200 cm-1 as the lower limit for the antiferromagnetic exchange coupling of oxidized ferredoxin II. The saturation magnetizations of reduced ferredoxin II at several fixed fields yield a nested family of curves which can be fit with spin S = 2 and D = -2.7(4) cm-1 (with E/D assigned the value 0.23 as determined by Mossbauer and EPR spectra). The low field susceptibility of reduced ferredoxin II also obeys the Curie law from approximately 4 up to 200 K. This establishes -2Jred greater than 40 cm-1 as the lower limit for the antiferromagnetic coupling of reduced ferredoxin II.

EPR-detectable redox centers of the periplasmic hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Patil, D. S., Moura J. J., He S. H., Teixeira M., Prickril B. C., Dervartanian D. V., Peck, H. D. Jr., Legall J., and Huynh B. H. , J Biol Chem, Dec 15, Volume 263, Number 35, p.18732-8, (1988) AbstractWebsite

The periplasmic hydrogenase of Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenbourough NCIB 8303) belongs to the category of [Fe] hydrogenase which contains only iron-sulfur clusters as its prosthetic groups. Amino acid analyses were performed on the purified D. vulgaris hydrogenase. The amino acid composition obtained compared very well with the result derived from the nucleotide sequence of the structural gene (Voordouw, G., Brenner, S. (1985) Eur. J. Biochem. 148, 515-520). Detailed EPR reductive titration studies on the D. vulgaris hydrogenase were performed to characterize the metal centers in this hydrogenase. In addition to the three previously observed EPR signals (namely, the "isotropic" 2.02 signal, the rhombic 2.10 signal, and the complex signal of the reduced enzyme), a rhombic signal with resonances at the g-values of 2.06, 1.96, and 1.89 (the rhombic 2.06 signal) was detected when the samples were poised at potentials between 0 and -250 mV (with respect to normal hydrogen electrode). The midpoint redox potentials for each of the four EPR-active species were determined, and the characteristics of each EPR signal are described. Both the rhombic 2.10 and 2.06 signals exhibit spectral properties that are distinct from a ferredoxin-type [4Fe-4S] cluster and are proposed to originate from the same H2-binding center but in two different conformations. The complex signal of the reduced hydrogenase has been shown to represent two spin-spin interacting ferredoxin-type [4Fe-4S]1+ clusters (Grande, H. J., Dunham, W. R., Averill, B., Van Dijk, C., and Sands, R. H. (1983) Eur. J. Biochem. 136, 201-207). The titration data indicated a strong cooperative effect between these two clusters during their reduction. In an effort to accurately estimate the number of iron atoms/molecule of hydrogenase, plasma emission and chemical methods were used to determine the iron contents in the samples; and four different methods, including amino acid analysis, were used for protein determination. The resulting iron stoichiometries were found to be method-dependent and vary over a wide range (+/- 20%). The uncertainties involved in the determination of iron stoichiometry are discussed.

Cytochrome components of nitrate- and sulfate-respiring Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774, Liu, M. C., Costa C., Coutinho I. B., Moura J. J., Moura I., Xavier A. V., and Legall J. , J Bacteriol, Dec, Volume 170, Number 12, p.5545-51, (1988) AbstractWebsite

Three multiheme c-type cytochromes--the tetraheme cytochrome c3 (molecular weight [MW] 13,500), a dodecaheme cytochrome c (MW 40,800), and a "split-Soret" cytochrome c (MW 51,540), which is a dimer with 2 hemes per subunit (MW 26,300)--were isolated from the soluble fraction of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 27774) grown under nitrate- or sulfate-respiring conditions. Two of them, the dodecaheme and the split-Soret cytochromes, showed no similarities to any of the c-type cytochromes isolated from other sulfate-reducing bacteria, while the tetraheme cytochrome c3 appeared to be analogous to the cytochrome c3 found in other sulfate-reducing bacteria. For all three multiheme c-type cytochromes isolated, the homologous proteins from nitrate- and sulfate-grown cells were indistinguishable in amino acid composition, physical properties, and spectroscopic characteristics. It therefore appears that the same c-type cytochrome components are present when D. desulfuricans ATCC 27774 cells are grown under either condition. This is in contrast to the considerable difference found in Pseudomonas perfectomarina (Liu et al., J. Bacteriol. 154:278-286, 1983), a marine denitrifier, when the cells are grown on nitrate or oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. In addition, two spectroscopy methods capable of revealing minute structural variations in proteins provided identical information about the tetraheme cytochrome c3 from nitrate-grown and sulfate-grown cells.

Hydrogen production and deuterium-proton exchange reactions catalyzed by Desulfovibrio nickel(II)-substituted rubredoxins, Saint-Martin, P., Lespinat P. A., Fauque G., Berlier Y., Legall J., Moura I., Teixeira M., Xavier A. V., and Moura J. J. , Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, Dec, Volume 85, Number 24, p.9378-80, (1988) AbstractWebsite

The nickel tetrahedral sulfur-coordinated core formed upon metal replacement of the native iron in Desulfovibrio sp. rubredoxins is shown to mimic the reactivity pattern of nickel-containing hydrogenases with respect to hydrogen production, deuterium-proton exchange, and inhibition by carbon monoxide.

The three classes of hydrogenases from sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio, Fauque, G., Peck, H. D. Jr., Moura J. J., Huynh B. H., Berlier Y., Dervartanian D. V., Teixeira M., Przybyla A. E., Lespinat P. A., Moura I.,, and et al , FEMS Microbiol Rev, Dec, Volume 4, Number 4, p.299-344, (1988) AbstractWebsite

Three types of hydrogenases have been isolated from the sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio. They differ in their subunit and metal compositions, physico-chemical characteristics, amino acid sequences, immunological reactivities, gene structures and their catalytic properties. Broadly, the hydrogenases can be considered as 'iron only' hydrogenases and nickel-containing hydrogenases. The iron-sulfur-containing hydrogenase ([Fe] hydrogenase) contains two ferredoxin-type (4Fe-4S) clusters and an atypical iron-sulfur center believed to be involved in the activation of H2. The [Fe] hydrogenase has the highest specific activity in the evolution and consumption of hydrogen and in the proton-deuterium exchange reaction and this enzyme is the most sensitive to CO and NO2-. It is not present in all species of Desulfovibrio. The nickel-(iron-sulfur)-containing hydrogenases [( NiFe] hydrogenases) possess two (4Fe-4S) centers and one (3Fe-xS) cluster in addition to nickel and have been found in all species of Desulfovibrio so far investigated. The redox active nickel is ligated by at least two cysteinyl thiolate residues and the [NiFe] hydrogenases are particularly resistant to inhibitors such as CO and NO2-. The genes encoding the large and small subunits of a periplasmic and a membrane-bound species of the [NiFe] hydrogenase have been cloned in Escherichia (E.) coli and sequenced. Their derived amino acid sequences exhibit a high degree of homology (70%); however, they show no obvious metal-binding sites or homology with the derived amino acid sequence of the [Fe] hydrogenase. The third class is represented by the nickel-(iron-sulfur)-selenium-containing hydrogenases [( NiFe-Se] hydrogenases) which contain nickel and selenium in equimolecular amounts plus (4Fe-4S) centers and are only found in some species of Desulfovibrio. The genes encoding the large and small subunits of the periplasmic hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio (D.) baculatus (DSM 1743) have been cloned in E. coli and sequenced. The derived amino acid sequence exhibits homology (40%) with the sequence of the [NiFe] hydrogenase and the carboxy-terminus of the gene for the large subunit contains a codon (TGA) for selenocysteine in a position homologous to a codon (TGC) for cysteine in the large subunit of the [NiFe] hydrogenase. EXAFS and EPR studies with the 77Se-enriched D. baculatus hydrogenase indicate that selenium is a ligand to nickel and suggest that the redox active nickel is ligated by at least two cysteinyl thiolate and one selenocysteine selenolate residues.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

A hypothetical model of the flavodoxin-tetraheme cytochrome c3 complex of sulfate-reducing bacteria, Stewart, D. E., Legall J., Moura I., Moura J. J., Peck, H. D. Jr., Xavier A. V., Weiner P. K., and Wampler J. E. , Biochemistry, Apr 5, Volume 27, Number 7, p.2444-50, (1988) AbstractWebsite

A hypothetical model of the flavodoxin-tetraheme cytochrome c3 electron-transfer complex from the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris has been constructed by using interactive computer graphics based on electrostatic potential field calculations and previous NMR experiments. Features of the proposed complex are (1) van der Waals contact between the flavin mononucleotide prosthetic group of flavodoxin and one heme of the cytochrome, (2) unique complementarity of electrostatic fields between the region surrounding this heme and the region surrounding the exposed portion of the flavin mononucleotide group of flavodoxin, and (3) no steric interferences between the two polypeptide chains in the complex. This complex is consistent with all structural and spectroscopic data available.

Electronic and magnetic properties of nickel-substituted rubredoxin: a variable-temperature magnetic circular dichroism study, Kowal, Andrzej T., Zambrano Isabel C., Moura Isabel, Moura Jose J. G., Legall Jean, and Johnson Michael K. , Inorganic Chemistry, 1988/04/01, Volume 27, Number 7, p.1162-1166, (1988) AbstractWebsite
Characterization of two dissimilatory sulfite reductases (desulforubidin and desulfoviridin) from the sulfate-reducing bacteria. Moessbauer and EPR studies, Moura, I., Legall J., Lino A. R., Peck H. D., Fauque G., Xavier A. V., Dervartanian D. V., Moura J. J. G., and Huynh B. H. , Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1988/02/17, Volume 110, Number 4, p.1075-1082, (1988) AbstractWebsite
Characterization of two dissimilatory sulfite reductases from sulfate-reducing bacteria, Huynh, B. H., Moura I., Lino A. R., Moura J. J. G., and Legall J. , Hyperfine Interactions, 1988, Volume 42, Number 1-4, p.905-908, (1988) AbstractWebsite
NICKEL-CONTAINING HYDROGENASES, Moura, J. J. G., Moura I., Teixeira M., Xavier A. V., Fauque G. D., and Legall J. , Metal Ions in Biological Systems, 1988, Volume 23, p.285-314, (1988) AbstractWebsite