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Two-dimensional 1H NMR studies on Desulfovibrio gigas ferredoxins. Assignment of the iron-sulfur cluster cysteinyl ligand protons, Macedo, Anjos L., Palma Nuno P., Moura Isabel, Legall Jean, Wray Victor, and Moura José J. G. , Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, Volume 31, Number 13, p.S59-S67, (1993) AbstractWebsite

1D and 2D 1H NMR studies are reported on the oxidized and reduced [4Fe-4S] cluster of Desulfovibrio gigas ferredoxin I (Fdl). Several low-field contact shifted resonances (fast relaxing) are assigned to β-CH2 and α-CH coordinated cysteinyl residues. NOESY patterns (supported by 1D NOE experiments) resolves four pairs of geminal β-CH2 protons at low-field. The cluster ligands are assigned non-specifically to Cys8, Cys11, Cys14 and Cys50, based on the X-ray structural analysis available for the oligomeric form, FdII, that contains a single [3Fe-4S] cluster. It was indicated in this case that Cys11 is not bound to the trinuclear cluster but is tilted towards the solvent. The presence of four pairs of geminal β-CH2 protons for FdI unambiguously proves the occupancy of the fourth site of the [3Fe-4S] complex and implies the coordination of the Cys11 at the cluster. Analysis of the oxidized form of FdII, using the same methodology as described for FdI, supports the presence of three cysteinyl ligands in the [3Fe-4S] core. Further, the combined use of the X-ray coordinates enables the specific assignment of the three cysteinyl ligands of the cluster, extending a previous assignment of Cys50. In addition, very broad resonances were detected for the reduced form of FdII in the low-field region around 200 ppm and in the high field region around −80 ppm.

Two azurins with unusual redox and spectroscopic properties isolated from the Pseudomonas chlororaphis strains DSM 50083(T) and DSM 50135, Pinho, D., Besson S., Brondino C. D., Pereira E., de Castro B., and Moura I. , Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, Feb, Volume 98, Number 2, p.276-286, (2004) AbstractWebsite

Two azurins (Az624 and Az626) were isolated from the soluble extract of two strains of Pseudomonas chlororaphis, DSM 50083(T) and DSM 50135, respectively, grown under microaerobic conditions with nitrate as final electron acceptor. The azurins, purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in three chromatographic steps, exhibit several peculiar properties. They have high reduction potentials and lower pI than most azurins described in the literature. As previously observed for Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin, their reduction potentials are pH-dependent, but the pK values of their oxidized forms are lower, which suggests that deeper structural changes are associated with the oxidation process of these novel azurins. A hitherto undescribed pH-dependence of the diffusion coefficient was observed in Az624, that could be caused either by conformational changes, or by the formation of supramolecular aggregates associated with a protonation process. Both azurins exhibit axial X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra in frozen solution showing a typical hyperfine with the copper nucleus (I = 3/2) and a well-resolved superhyperfine structure with two equivalent N-14 nucleus (I = 1), which is not usually observed for azurins from other species. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Tungsten-containing formate dehydrogenase from Desulfovibrio gigas: metal identification and preliminary structural data by multi-wavelength crystallography, Raaijmakers, H., Teixeira S., Dias J. M., Almendra M. J., Brondino C. D., Moura I., Moura J. J., and Romao M. J. , J Biol Inorg Chem, Apr, Volume 6, Number 4, p.398-404, (2001) AbstractWebsite

The tungsten-containing formate dehydrogenase (W-FDH) isolated from Desulfovibrio gigas has been crystallized in space group P2(1), with cell parameters a = 73.8 A, b = 111.3 A, c = 156.6 A and beta = 93.7 degrees. These crystals diffract to beyond 2.0 A on a synchrotron radiation source. W-FDH is a heterodimer (92 kDa and 29 kDa subunits) and two W-FDH molecules are present in the asymmetric unit. Although a molecular replacement solution was found using the periplasmic nitrate reductase as a search model, additional phasing information was needed. A multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) dataset was collected at the W- and Fe-edges, at four different wavelengths. Anomalous and dispersive difference data allowed us to unambiguously identify the metal atoms bound to W-FDH as one W atom with a Se-cysteine ligand as well as one [4Fe-4S] cluster in the 92 kDa subunit, and three additional [4Fe-4S] centers in the smaller 29 kDa subunit. The D. gigas W-FDH was previously characterized based on metal analysis and spectroscopic data. One W atom was predicted to be bound to two molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide (MGD) pterin cofactors and two [4Fe-4S] centers were proposed to be present. The crystallographic data now reported reveal a selenium atom (as a Se-cysteine) coordinating to the W site, as well as two extra [4Fe-4S] clusters not anticipated before. The EPR data were re-evaluated in the light of these new results.

The treta copper-sulfide center of nitrous oxide reductase, Pauleta, S. R., Carepo M. S., and Moura I. , Transition Metals and Sulfur- A Strong Relationship with Life, Berlin, p.Chapter 5, (2019)
Total synthesis of a simple metalloprotein-desulforedoxin, Tavares, P., Wunderlich J. K., Lloyd S. G., Legall J., Moura J. J., and Moura I. , Biochem Biophys Res Commun, Mar 17, Volume 208, Number 2, p.680-7, (1995) AbstractWebsite

Desulforedoxin is a protein purified from cellular extracts of Desulfovibrio gigas. It is a small (7.9 kDa) dimeric protein that contains a distorted rubredoxin like center (one single iron coordinated by four cysteinyl residues). Due to the simplicity of the polypeptide chain and of the iron center, an attempt was made to chemically produce this protein. A 36 amino acid polypeptide chain was synthesized based on the known sequence of native Desulforedoxin. The iron center was then reconstituted and the biochemical and spectroscopic characteristics of this synthetic protein were investigated. The final product has an equal sequence to the protein purified from D. gigas. The synthetic and natural Dx are very similar, in terms redox potential and spectroscopic properties (UV-Visible, EPR, Mossbauer).

Total lead and its stable isotopes in the digestive gland of Octopus vulgaris as a fingerprint, Raimundo, J., Vale C., Caetano M., Cesario R., and Moura I. , Aquatic Biology, 2009, Volume 6, Number 1-3, p.25-30, (2009) AbstractWebsite

We hypothesised that the isotopic signature of Pb in the digestive gland of the common octopus reflects the organisms' sources of Pb, and investigated whether isotopic Pb ratios are useful in characterising octopus populations. A total of 47 Octopus vulgaris individuals were captured between November 2005 and September 2006 in 2 areas of the Portuguese coast, near Matosinhos (Area A; NW coast) and Olhao (Area B; south coast), and digestive glands were analysed for total Pb and its stable isotopes. The same determinations were performed in 22 samples of surface sediments from the 2 areas. Pb concentrations in the digestive gland of specimens from Area B (2.8 to 13.0 mu g g(-1)) exceeded the values found in Area A (1.3 to 8.3 mu g g(-1)). A similar pattern was found for the isotopic Pb ratios: (206)Pb/(207)Pb was 1.173 to 1.185 for Area A and 1.165 to 1.172 for B; (206)Pb/(208)Pb was 0.476 to 0.487 for Area A and 0.318 to 0.483 for B. The different signatures of the digestive glands are in line with those observed in the surface sediments of the 2 coastal areas (e.g. (206)Pb/(207)Pb was 1.179 to 1.207 for Area A and 1.171 to 1.181 for B). However, the isotopic Pb signature of octopus was less radiogenic than that of sediments. Because octopus has a short life span (up to 24 mo) the signature reflects recent sources of Pb that have a less radiogenic signature. The Pb signature of surface sediments tends to integrate the record of the previous few years or decades, due to the frequent resuspension of the upper layer of coastal sediments. The mixing of sediments deposited during those periods results in higher isotopic Pb ratios (more radiogenic). The consistent differences between the 2 areas, in sediments and octopus, points towards the isotopic Pb signature as a possible useful tool to distinguish octopus populations.

Topography of human cytochrome b5/cytochrome b5 reductase interacting domain and redox alterations upon complex formation, Samhan-Arias, A. K., Almeida R. M., Ramos S., Cordas C. M., Moura I., Gutierrez-Merino C., and Moura J. J. G. , Biochim Biophys Acta, Volume 1859, p.78-87, (2018)
Three-iron clusters in iron--sulfur proteins: An EPR study of the exchange interactions, Gayda, Jean-Pierre, Bertrand Patrick, Theodule Francois-Xavier, and Moura Jose J. G. , The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 77, Number 7, p.3387-3391, (1982) AbstractWebsite
The three-iron cluster in a ferredoxin from Desulphovibrio gigas. A low-temperature magnetic circular dichroism study, Thomson, A. J., Robinson A. E., Johnson M. K., Moura J. J., Moura I., Xavier A. V., and Legall J. , Biochim Biophys Acta, Aug 28, Volume 670, Number 1, p.93-100, (1981) AbstractWebsite

Ferredoxin II from Desulphovibrio gigas is a tetrameric protein containing a novel iron-sulphur cluster consisting of three iron atoms. The low-temperature magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra of the oxidized and dithionite-reduced forms of ferredoxin II have been measured over the wavelength range approx. 300-800 nm. Both oxidation levels of the cluster are shown to be paramagnetic, although only the oxidized form gives an EPR signal. MCD magnetization curves have been constructed over the temperature range approx. 1.5-150 K and at fields between 0 and 5.1 Tesla. The curve for the oxidized protein can be fitted to a ground state of spin S = 1/2 with an isotropic g factor of 2.01. There is evidence for the thermal population of a low-lying electronic state above 50 K. The reduced protein gives a distinctive set of magnetization curves that are tentatively assigned to a ground state of S = 2, with a predominantly axial zero-field distortion that leaves the doublet Ms = +/-2 lowest in energy. The zero-field components have a maximum energy spread of approx. 15 cm-1. which places an upper limit of 4 cm-1 on the axial zero-field parameter D. The MCD spectra of the oxidized and reduced forms of the cluster are quite distinctive from one another. The spectra of the oxidized state are also different from those of oxidized high-potential iron protein from Chromatium and should provide a useful criterion for distinguishing between four- and three-iron clusters in their highest oxidation levels.

The three classes of hydrogenases from sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio, Fauque, G., Peck, H. D. Jr., Moura J. J., Huynh B. H., Berlier Y., Dervartanian D. V., Teixeira M., Przybyla A. E., Lespinat P. A., Moura I.,, and et al , FEMS Microbiol Rev, Dec, Volume 4, Number 4, p.299-344, (1988) AbstractWebsite

Three types of hydrogenases have been isolated from the sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio. They differ in their subunit and metal compositions, physico-chemical characteristics, amino acid sequences, immunological reactivities, gene structures and their catalytic properties. Broadly, the hydrogenases can be considered as 'iron only' hydrogenases and nickel-containing hydrogenases. The iron-sulfur-containing hydrogenase ([Fe] hydrogenase) contains two ferredoxin-type (4Fe-4S) clusters and an atypical iron-sulfur center believed to be involved in the activation of H2. The [Fe] hydrogenase has the highest specific activity in the evolution and consumption of hydrogen and in the proton-deuterium exchange reaction and this enzyme is the most sensitive to CO and NO2-. It is not present in all species of Desulfovibrio. The nickel-(iron-sulfur)-containing hydrogenases [( NiFe] hydrogenases) possess two (4Fe-4S) centers and one (3Fe-xS) cluster in addition to nickel and have been found in all species of Desulfovibrio so far investigated. The redox active nickel is ligated by at least two cysteinyl thiolate residues and the [NiFe] hydrogenases are particularly resistant to inhibitors such as CO and NO2-. The genes encoding the large and small subunits of a periplasmic and a membrane-bound species of the [NiFe] hydrogenase have been cloned in Escherichia (E.) coli and sequenced. Their derived amino acid sequences exhibit a high degree of homology (70%); however, they show no obvious metal-binding sites or homology with the derived amino acid sequence of the [Fe] hydrogenase. The third class is represented by the nickel-(iron-sulfur)-selenium-containing hydrogenases [( NiFe-Se] hydrogenases) which contain nickel and selenium in equimolecular amounts plus (4Fe-4S) centers and are only found in some species of Desulfovibrio. The genes encoding the large and small subunits of the periplasmic hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio (D.) baculatus (DSM 1743) have been cloned in E. coli and sequenced. The derived amino acid sequence exhibits homology (40%) with the sequence of the [NiFe] hydrogenase and the carboxy-terminus of the gene for the large subunit contains a codon (TGA) for selenocysteine in a position homologous to a codon (TGC) for cysteine in the large subunit of the [NiFe] hydrogenase. EXAFS and EPR studies with the 77Se-enriched D. baculatus hydrogenase indicate that selenium is a ligand to nickel and suggest that the redox active nickel is ligated by at least two cysteinyl thiolate and one selenocysteine selenolate residues.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Third-generation electrochemical biosensor based on nitric oxide reductase immobilized in a multiwalled carbon nanotubes/1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate nanocomposite for nitric oxide detection, Gomes, FO, Maia L. B., Delerue-Matos C., Moura I., Moura J. J. G., and Morais S. , Sensors & Actuators: B. Chemical, Volume 285, p.445-452, (2019) Website
Thiol/disulfide formation associated with the redox activity of the [Fe3S4] cluster of Desulfovibrio gigas ferredoxin II. 1H NMR and Mossbauer spectroscopic study, Macedo, A. L., Moura I., Surerus K. K., Papaefthymiou V., Liu M. Y., Legall J., Munck E., and Moura J. J. , J Biol Chem, Mar 18, Volume 269, Number 11, p.8052-8, (1994) AbstractWebsite

Desulfovibrio gigas ferredoxin II (FdII) is a small protein (alpha 4 subunit structure as isolated; M(r) approximately 6400 per subunit; 6 cysteine residues) containing one Fe3S4 cluster per alpha-subunit. The x-ray structure of FdII has revealed a disulfide bridge formed by Cys-18 and Cys-42 approximately 13 A away from the center of the cluster; moreover, the x-ray structure indicates that Cys-11 forms a disulfide bridge with a methanethiol. In the oxidized state, FdIIoxm the 1H NMR spectra, exhibit four low-field contact-shifted resonances at 29, 24, 18, and 15.5 ppm whereas the reduced state, FdIIR (S = 2), yields two features at +18.5 and -11 ppm. In the course of studying the redox behavior of FdII, we have discovered a stable intermediate, FdIIint, that yields 1H resonances at 24, 21.5, 21, and 14 ppm. This intermediate appears in the potential range where the cluster (E'0 approximately -130 mV) is reduced from the [Fe3S4]1+ to the [Fe3S4]0 state. FdIIint is observed during reductive titrations with dithionite or hydrogen/hydrogenase or after partial oxidation of FdIIR by 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol or air. Our studies show that a total of three electrons per alpha-subunit are transferred to FdII. Our experiments demonstrate the absence of a methanethiol-Cys-11 linkage in our preparations, and we propose that two of the three electrons are used for the reduction of the disulfide bridge. Mossbauer (and EPR) studies show that the Fe3S4 cluster of FdIIint is at the same oxidation level as FdIIox, but indicate some changes in the exchange couplings among the three ferric sites. Our data suggest that the differences in the NMR and Mossbauer spectra of FdIIox and FdIIint result from conformational changes attending the breaking or formation of the disulfide bridge. The present study suggests that experiments be undertaken to explore an in vivo redox function for the disulfide bridge.

Thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the outer membrane cytochrome OmcF, a key protein for extracellular electron transfer in Geobacter sulfurreducens, Teixeira, L. R., Dantas J. M., Salgueiro C. A., and Cordas C. M. , BBA - Bioenergetics, Volume 1859, p.1132-1137, (2018) Website
The tetranuclear copper active site of nitrous oxide reductase: the CuZ center, Dell'Acqua, S., Pauleta S. R., Moura I., and Moura J. J. , J Biol Inorg Chem, Feb, Volume 16, Number 2, p.183-94, (2011) AbstractWebsite

This review focuses on the novel CuZ center of nitrous oxide reductase, an important enzyme owing to the environmental significance of the reaction it catalyzes, reduction of nitrous oxide, and the unusual nature of its catalytic center, named CuZ. The structure of the CuZ center, the unique tetranuclear copper center found in this enzyme, opened a novel area of research in metallobiochemistry. In the last decade, there has been progress in defining the structure of the CuZ center, characterizing the mechanism of nitrous oxide reduction, and identifying intermediates of this reaction. In addition, the determination of the structure of the CuZ center allowed a structural interpretation of the spectroscopic data, which was supported by theoretical calculations. The current knowledge of the structure, function, and spectroscopic characterization of the CuZ center is described here. We would like to stress that although many questions have been answered, the CuZ center remains a scientific challenge, with many hypotheses still being formed.

Temperature-dependent proton NMR investigation of the electronic structure of the trinuclear iron cluster of the oxidized Desulfovibrio gigas ferredoxin II, Macedo, Anjos L., Moura Isabel, Moura Jose J. G., Legall Jean, and Huynh Boi Hanh , Inorganic Chemistry, 1993/03/01, Volume 32, Number 7, p.1101-1105, (1993) AbstractWebsite
Tauroursodeoxycholic acid prevents Bax-induced membrane perturbation and cytochrome C release in isolated mitochondria, Rodrigues, C. M., Sola S., Sharpe J. C., Moura J. J., and Steer C. J. , Biochemistry, Mar 18, Volume 42, Number 10, p.3070-80, (2003) AbstractWebsite

Bax is a potent pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family that localizes to the mitochondrial membrane during apoptosis. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) modulates the apoptotic threshold, in part, by preventing Bax translocation both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms by which Bax induces and TUDCA inhibits release of cytochrome c are unclear. We show here that recombinant Bax protein induced cytochrome c release in isolated mitochondria without detectable swelling. Co-incubation with TUDCA prevented efflux of mitochondrial factors and proteolytic processing of caspases in cytosolic extracts. Spectroscopic analyses of mitochondria exposed to Bax revealed increased polarity and fluidity of the membrane lipid core as well as altered protein order, indicative of Bax binding, together with loss of spin-label paramagnetism, characteristic of oxidative damage. TUDCA markedly abrogated the Bax-induced membrane perturbation. In conclusion, our results indicate that Bax protein directly induces cytochrome c release from mitochondria through a mechanism that does not require the permeability transition. Rather, it is accompanied by changes in the organization of membrane lipids and proteins. TUDCA is a potent inhibitor of Bax association with mitochondria. Thus, TUDCA modulates apoptosis by suppressing mitochondrial membrane perturbation through pathways that are also independent of the mitochondrial permeability transition.