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Sample treatment for protein identification by mass spectrometry-based techniques, Lopez-Ferrer, D., Canas B., Vazquez J., Lodeiro C., Rial-Otero R., Moura I., and Capelo J. L. , Trac-Trends in Analytical Chemistry, Nov, Volume 25, Number 10, p.996-1005, (2006) AbstractWebsite

Rapid identification of proteins is of primary importance for the analytical community. Protein-biomarker discovery for medical diagnostics or pharmacological purposes is becoming one of the hottest research topics. Moreover, rapid identification of proteins can help unambiguous bacterial and virus detection. In addition, the fast identification of bacteria can be used to beat bioterrorism. As a consequence, new analytical methodologies have emerged recently with the aim of making protein analysis as fast and as confident as possible. In this article, we critically review the new trends in sample treatment for protein identification and comment on the prospects for the future in this promising analytical area. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sandwich-Type Enzymatic Fuel Cell Based on a New Electro-Conductive Material - Ion Jelly, Carvalho, R., Almeida R., Moura J. J. G., Lourenço N., Fonseca L., and Cordas C. M. , Chemistry Select, Volume 1, p.6546–6552, (2016) Website
Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase is inhibited by organic vanadium coordination compounds: pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylatodioxovanadium(V), BMOV, and an amavadine analogue, Aureliano, M., Henao F., Tiago T., Duarte R. O., Moura J. J., Baruah B., and Crans D. C. , Inorg Chem, Jul 7, Volume 47, Number 13, p.5677-84, (2008) AbstractWebsite

The general affinity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca (2+)-ATPase was examined for three different classes of vanadium coordination complexes including a vanadium(V) compound, pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylatodioxovanadium(V) (PDC-V(V)), and two vanadium(IV) compounds, bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV) (BMOV), and an analogue of amavadine, bis( N-hydroxylamidoiminodiacetato)vanadium(IV) (HAIDA-V(IV)). The ability of vanadate to act either as a phosphate analogue or as a transition-state analogue with enzymes' catalysis phosphoryl group transfer suggests that vanadium coordination compounds may reveal mechanistic preferences in these classes of enzymes. Two of these compounds investigated, PDC-V(V) and BMOV, were hydrolytically and oxidatively reactive at neutral pH, and one, HAIDA-V(IV), does not hydrolyze, oxidize, or otherwise decompose to a measurable extent during the enzyme assay. The SR Ca (2+)-ATPase was inhibited by all three of these complexes. The relative order of inhibition was PDC-V(V) > BMOV > vanadate > HAIDA-V(IV), and the IC 50 values were 25, 40, 80, and 325 microM, respectively. Because the observed inhibition is more potent for PDC-V(V) and BMOV than that of oxovanadates, the inhibition cannot be explained by oxovanadate formation during enzyme assays. Furthermore, the hydrolytically and redox stable amavadine analogue HAIDA-V(IV) inhibited the Ca (2+)-ATPase less than oxovanadates. To gauge the importance of the lipid environment, studies of oxidized BMOV in microemulsions were performed and showed that this system remained in the aqueous pool even though PDC-V(V) is able to penetrate lipid interfaces. These findings suggest that the hydrolytic properties of these complexes may be important in the inhibition of the calcium pump. Our results show that two simple coordination complexes with known insulin enhancing effects can invoke a response in calcium homeostasis and the regulation of muscle contraction through the SR Ca (2+)-ATPase.

Screening of Potential Stress Biomarkers in Sweat Associated with Sports Training, Nunes, M. J., Cordas C. M., Moura J. J. G., Noronha J. P., and Branco L. C. , Sports Medicine - Open, Volume 7, p.8, (2021)
Screen‐Printed Electrodes Testing for Detection of Potential Stress Biomarkers in Sweat, M.J., Nunes, G.N. Valério, A. Samhan‐Arias, J.J.G. Moura, C. Rouco, Sousa J. P., and C.M. Cordas , Electrocatalysis, Volume 13, p.299–305, (2022)
SERR spectroelectrochemical study of cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase co-immobilized with physiological redox partner cytochrome c552 on biocompatible metal electrodes, Silveira, C. M., Quintas P. O., Moura I., Moura J. J. G., Hildebrandt P., Almeida M. G., and Todorovic S. , Plos One, Volume 10, p.e0129940, (2015)
Simple and Complex Iron-Sulfur Proteins in Sulfate Reducing Bacteria, Moura, Isabel, Pereira Alice S., Tavares Pedro, and Moura José J. G. , Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume Volume 47, p.361-419, (1999) Abstract
Simplifying sample handling for protein identification by peptide mass fingerprint using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, Cordeiro, Francisco M., Carreira Ricardo J., Rial-Otero Raquel, Rivas Gabriela M., Moura Isabel, and Capelo Jose-Luis , Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 2007, Volume 21, Number 20, p.3269-3278, (2007) AbstractWebsite

An ultrasonic bath, an ultrasonic probe and a sonoreactor were used to speed up the kinetics of the reactions involved in each step of the sample handling for in-gel protein identification by peptide mass fingerprint, PMF, using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The following steps were successfully accelerated using ultrasonic energy: gel washing, protein reduction, and protein alkylation. As a result, a reduction comprising 80% to 90% of the total time involved in the classic approach was achieved. In addition the sample handling was also drastically simplified. The number of peptides identified and the protein sequence coverage obtained for the new procedure were comparable to those obtained with the traditional sample treatment for the following protein standards: glycogen phosphorylase b, BSA, ovalbumin, carbonic anhydrase, trypsin inhibitor and alpha-lactalbumin. Finally, as a proof of the procedure, specific proteins were identified from complex protein mixtures obtained from three different sulphate- reducing bacteria: Desulfovibrio, desulfuricans G20, Desulfuvibrio gigas NCIB 9332, and Desulfuvibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Simulation of the electrochemical behavior of multi-redox systems. Current potential studies on multiheme cytochromes, Moreno, C., Campos A., Teixeira M., Legall J., Montenegro M. I., Moura I., Van Dijk C., and Moura J. G. , Eur J Biochem, Dec 5, Volume 202, Number 2, p.385-93, (1991) AbstractWebsite

The direct unmediated electrochemical response of the tetrahemic cytochrome c3 isolated from sulfate reducers Desulfovibrio baculatus (DSM 1743) and D. vulgaris (strain Hildenborough), was evaluated using different electrode systems [graphite (edge cut), gold, semiconductor (InO2) and mercury)] and different electrochemical methods (cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry). A computer program was developed for the theoretical simulation of a complete cyclic voltammetry curve, based on the method proposed by Nicholson and Shain [Nicholson, R.S. & Shain, I. (1964) Anal. Chem. 36, 706-723], using the Gauss-Legendre method for calculation of the integral equations. The experimental data obtained for this multi-redox center protein was deconvoluted in to the four redox components using theoretically generated cyclic voltammetry curves and the four mid-point reduction potentials determined. The pH dependence of the four reduction potentials was evaluated using the deconvolution method described.

A single histidine is required for activity of cytochrome c peroxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans, McGinnity, D. F., Devreese B., Prazeres S., Van Beeumen J., Moura I., Moura J. J., and Pettigrew G. W. , J Biol Chem, May 10, Volume 271, Number 19, p.11126-33, (1996) AbstractWebsite

The diheme cytochrome c peroxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans was modified with the histidine-specific reagent diethyl pyrocarbonate. At low excess of reagent, 1 mol of histidine was modified in the oxidized enzyme, and modification was associated with loss of the ability to form the active state. With time, the modification reversed, and the ability to form the active state was recovered. The agreement between the spectrophotometric measurement of histidine modification and radioactive incorporation using a radiolabeled reagent indicated little modification of other amino acids. However, the reversal of histidine modification observed spectrophotometrically was not matched by loss of radioactivity, and we propose a slow transfer of the ethoxyformyl group to an unidentified amino acid. The presence of CN- bound to the active peroxidatic site of the enzyme led to complete protection of the essential histidine from modification. Limited subtilisin treatment of the native enzyme followed by tryptic digest of the C-terminal fragment (residues 251-338) showed that radioactivity was located in a peptide containing a single histidine at position 275. We propose that this conserved residue, in a highly conserved region, is central to the function of the active mixed-valence state.

SiW11Fe@MIL-101(Cr) composite: A novel and versatile electrocatalyst, Fernandes, D. M., Granadeiro C. M., de M. Paes Sousa. P., Grazina R., Moura J. J. G., Silva P., Almeida Paz F. A., Cunha-Silva L., Balula S. S., and Freire C. , ChemElectroChem, Volume 1, p.1293-1300, (2014)
The small iron-sulfur protein from the ORP operon binds a [2Fe-2S] cluster, Maiti, B. K., Moura I., Moura J. J. G., and Pauleta S. R. , Biochim Biophys Acta, Volume 1857, p.1422-1429, (2016) Website
Small phospho-donors phosphorylate MorR without inducing protein conformational changes, Castro, N. S. S., Laia C. A. T., Maiti B. K., Cerqueira N., Moura I., and Carepo M. S. P. , Biophys Chem, Volume 240, p.25-33, (2018)
The solution structure of a [3Fe-4S] ferredoxin: oxidised ferredoxin II from Desulfovibrio gigas, Goodfellow, B. J., Macedo A. L., Rodrigues P., Moura I., Wray V., and Moura J. J. , J Biol Inorg Chem, Aug, Volume 4, Number 4, p.421-30, (1999) AbstractWebsite

The use of standard 2D NMR experiments in combination with 1D NOE experiments allowed the assignment of 51 of the 58 spin systems of oxidised [3Fe4S] ferredoxin isolated from Desulfovibrio gigas. The NMR solution structure was determined using data from 1D NOE and 2D NOESY spectra, as distance constraints, and information from the X-ray structure for the spin systems not detected by NMR in torsion angle dynamics calculations to produce a family of 15 low target function structures. The quality of the NMR family, as judged by the backbone r.m.s.d. values, was good (0.80 A), with the majority of phi/psi angles falling within the allowed region of the Ramachandran plot. A comparison with the X-ray structure indicated that the overall global fold is very similar in solution and in the solid state. The determination of the solution structure of ferredoxin II (FdII) in the oxidised state (FdIIox) opens the way for the determination of the solution structure of the redox intermediate state of FdII (FdII(int)), for which no X-ray structure is available.

The solution structure of desulforedoxin, a simple iron-sulfur protein - An NMR study of the zinc derivative, Goodfellow, B. J., Tavares P., Romao M. J., Czaja C., Rusnak F., Legall J., Moura I., and Moura J. J. G. , Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, Aug, Volume 1, Number 4, p.341-354, (1996) AbstractWebsite

Desulforedoxin is a simple dimeric protein isolated from Desulfovibrio gigas containing a distorted rubredoxin-like center with one iron coordinated by four cysteinyl residues (7.9 kDa with a 36-amino-acid monomer). H-1 NMR spectra of the oxidized Dx(Fe3+) and reduced Dx(Fe2+) forms were analyzed. The spectra show substantial line broadening due to the paramagnetism of iron. However, very low-field-shifted resonances, assigned to H beta protons, were observed in the reduced state and their temperature dependence analyzed. The active site of Dx was reconstituted with zinc, and its solution structure was determined using 2D NMR methods. This diamagnetic form gave high-resolution NMR data enabling the identification of all the amino acid spin systems. Sequential assignment and the determination of secondary structural elements was attempted using 2D NOESY experiments. However, because of the symmetrical dimer nature of the protein standard, NMR sequential assignment methods could not resolve all cross peaks due to inter- and intra-chain effects. The X-ray structure enabled the spatial relationship between the monomers to be obtained, and resolved the assignment problems. Secondary structural features could be identified from the NMR data; an antiparallel beta-sheet running from D5 to V18 with a well-defined beta-turn around cysteines C9 and C12. The section G22 to T25 is poorly defined by the NMR data and is followed by a turn around V27-C29. The C-terminus ends up near residues V6 and Y7. Distance geometry (DG) calculations allowed families of structures to be generated from the NMR data. A family of structures with a low target function violation for the Dr monomer and dimer were found to have secondary structural elements identical to those seen in the X-ray structure. The amide protons for G4, D5, G13, L11 NH and Q14 NH epsilon amide protons, H-bonded in the X-ray structure, were not seen by NMR as slowly exchanging, while structural disorder at the N-terminus, for the backbone at E10 and for the section G22-T25, was observed. Comparison between the Fe and Zn forms of Dr suggests that metal substitution does not have an effect on the structure of the protein.

Sonoreactor-based technology for fast high-throughput proteolytic digestion of proteins, Rial-Otero, R., Carreira R. J., Cordeiro F. M., Moro A. J., Fernandes L., Moura I., and Capelo J. L. , Journal of Proteome Research, Feb, Volume 6, Number 2, p.909-912, (2007) AbstractWebsite

Fast (120 s) and high-throughput (more than six samples at once) in-gel trypsin digestion of proteins using sonoreactor technology has been achieved. Successful protein identification was done by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, MALDI-TOF-MS. Specific identification of the adenylylsulphate reductase alfa subunit from a complex protein mixture from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was done as a proof of the methodology. The new sample treatment is of easy implementation, saves time and money, and can be adapted to online procedures and robotic platforms.

Source and reduction of nitrous oxide, Pauleta, S. R., Carepo M. S., and Moura I. , Coord Chem Rev, Volume 387, p.436-449, (2019)
Spectroscopic and electronic structure studies of the mu(4)-sulfide bridged tetranuclear Cu(Z) cluster in N(2)O reductase: molecular insight into the catalytic mechanism, Chen, P., Cabrito I., Moura J. J., Moura I., and Solomon E. I. , J Am Chem Soc, Sep 4, Volume 124, Number 35, p.10497-507, (2002) AbstractWebsite

Spectroscopic methods combined with density functional calculations are used to develop a detailed bonding description of the mu(4)-sulfide bridged tetranuclear Cu(Z) cluster in N(2)O reductase. The ground state of Cu(Z) has the 1Cu(II)/3Cu(I) configuration. The single electron hole dominantly resides on one Cu atom (Cu(I)) and partially delocalizes onto a second Cu atom (Cu(II)) via a Cu(I)-S-Cu(II) sigma/sigma superexchange pathway which is manifested by a Cu(II) --> Cu(I) intervalence transfer transition in absorption. The observed excited-state spectral features of Cu(Z) are dominated by the S --> Cu(I) charge-transfer transitions and Cu(I) based d-d transitions. The intensity pattern of individual S --> Cu(I) charge-transfer transitions reflects different bonding interactions of the sulfur valence orbitals with the four Cu's in the Cu(Z) cluster, which are consistent with the individual Cu-S force constants obtained from a normal coordinate analysis of the Cu(Z) resonance Raman frequencies and profiles. The Cu(I) d orbital splitting pattern correlates with its distorted T-shaped ligand field geometry and accounts for the observed low g( parallel ) value of Cu(Z) in EPR. The dominantly localized electronic structure description of the Cu(Z) site results from interactions of Cu(II) with the two additional Cu's of the cluster (Cu(III)/Cu(IV)), where the Cu-Cu electrostatic interactions lead to hole localization with no metal-metal bonding. The substrate binding edge of Cu(Z) has a dominantly oxidized Cu(I) and a dominantly reduced Cu(IV). The electronic structure description of Cu(Z) provides a strategy to overcome the reaction barrier of N(2)O reduction at this Cu(I)/Cu(IV) edge by simultaneous two-electron transfer to N(2)O in a bridged binding mode. One electron can be donated directly from Cu(IV) and the other from Cu(II) through the Cu(II)-S-Cu(I) sigma/sigma superexchange pathway. A frontier orbital scheme provides molecular insight into the catalytic mechanism of N(2)O reduction by the Cu(Z) cluster.

Spectroscopic characterization of a high-potential monohaem cytochrome from Wolinella succinogenes, a nitrate-respiring organism. Redox and spin equilibria studies, Moura, I., Liu M. Y., Costa C., Liu M. C., Pai G., Xavier A. V., Legall J., Payne W. J., and Moura J. J. , Eur J Biochem, Nov 15, Volume 177, Number 3, p.673-82, (1988) AbstractWebsite

When purified, a high-potential c-type monohaem cytochrome from the nitrate-respiring organism, Wollinella succinogenes (VPI 10659), displayed a minimum molecular mass of 8.2 kDa and 0.9 mol iron and 0.95 mol haem groups/mol protein. Visible light spectroscopy suggested the presence of an equilibrium between two ligand arrangements around the haem, i.e. an absorption band at 695 nm characteristic of haem-methionine coordination (low-spin form) coexisting with a high-spin form revealed by a band at 619 nm and a shoulder at 498 nm. The mid-point redox potential measured by visible redox titration of the low-spin form was approximately +100 mV. Binding cyanide (Ka = 5 x 10(5) M-1) resulted in the displacement of the methionyl axial residue, and full conversion to a low-spin, cyanide-bound form. Structural features were studied by 300-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy. In the oxidized state, the pH dependence of the haem methyl resonances (pH range 5-10) and the magnetic susceptibility measurements (using an NMR method) were consistent with the visible light spectroscopic data for the presence of a high-spin/low-spin equilibrium with a transition pKa of 7.3. The spin equilibrium was fast on the NMR time scale. The haem methyl resonances presented large downfield chemical shifts. An unusually broad methyl resonance at around 35 ppm (pH = 7.5, 25 degrees C) was extremely temperature-dependent [delta(323 K) - delta(273 K) = 7.2 ppm] and was assigned to the S-CH3 group of the axial methionine. In the ferrous state only a low-spin form is present. The haem meso protons, the methyl group and the methylene protons from the axial methionine were identified in the reduced form. The resonances from the aromatic residues (three tyrosines and one phenylalanine) were also assigned. Detailed monitoring of the NMR-redox pattern of the monohaem cytochrome from the fully reduced up to the fully oxidized state revealed that the rate of the intermolecular electronic exchange process was approximately 6 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 at 303 K and pH = 6.31. A dihaem cytochrome also present in the crude cell extract and purified to a homogeneous state, exhibited a molecular mass of 11 kDa and contained 2.43 mol iron and 1.89 mol haem c moieties/mol cytochrome. The absorption spectrum in the visible region exhibited no band at 695 nm, suggesting that methione is not a ligand for either of the two haems. Recovery of only small amounts of this protein prevented more detailed structural analyzes.

Spectroscopic characterization of a novel 2 x 4Fe-4S ferredoxin isolated from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774, Rodrigues, P. M., Moura I., Macedo A. L., and Moura J. J. G. , Inorganica Chimica Acta, Dec 3, Volume 356, p.215-221, (2003) AbstractWebsite

A novel iron-sulfur containing protein, a ferredoxin (Fd), was purified to homogeneity from the extract of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans American type culture collection (ATCC) 27774. The purified protein is a 13.4 kDa homodimer with a polypeptide chain of 60 amino acids residues, containing eight cysteines that coordinate two [4Fe-4S] clusters. The protein is shown to be air sensitive and cluster conversions take place. We structurally characterize a redox state that contains two [4Fe-4S] cores. 1D and 2D H-1 NMR studies are reported on form containing the clusters in the oxidized state. Based on the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE), relaxation measurements and comparison of the present data with the available spectra of the analogous 8Fe Fds, the cluster ligands were specifically assigned to the eight-cysteinyl residues. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Spectroscopic characterization of a novel tetranuclear Fe cluster in an iron-sulfur protein isolated from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Tavares, P., Pereira A. S., Krebs C., Ravi N., Moura J. J., Moura I., and Huynh B. H. , Biochemistry, Mar 3, Volume 37, Number 9, p.2830-42, (1998) AbstractWebsite

Mossbauer and EPR spectroscopies were used to characterize the Fe clusters in an Fe-S protein isolated from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 27774). This protein was previously thought to contain hexanuclear Fe clusters, but a recent X-ray crystallographic measurement on a similar protein isolated from Desulfovibrio vulgaris showed that the protein contains two tetranuclear clusters, a cubane-type [4Fe-4S] cluster and a mixed-ligand cluster of novel structure [Lindley et al. (1997) Abstract, Chemistry of Metals in Biological Systems, European Research Conference, Tomar, Portugal]. Three protein samples poised at different redox potentials (as-purified, 40 and 320 mV) were investigated. In all three samples, the [4Fe-4S] cluster was found to be present in the diamagnetic 2+ oxidation state and exhibited typical Mossbauer spectra. The novel-structure cluster was found to be redox active. In the 320-mV and as-purified samples, the cluster is at a redox equilibrium between its fully oxidized and one-electron reduced states. In the 40-mV sample, the cluster is in a two-electron reduced state. Distinct spectral components associated with the four Fe sites of cluster 2 in the three oxidation states were identified. The spectroscopic parameters obtained for the Fe sites reflect different ligand environments, making it possible to assign the spectral components to individual Fe sites. In the fully oxidized state, all four iron ions are high-spin ferric and antiferromagnetically coupled to form a diamagnetic S = 0 state. In the one-electron and two-electron reduced states, the reducing electrons were found to localize, consecutively, onto two Fe sites that are rich in oxygen/nitrogen ligands. Based on the X-ray structure and the Mossbauer parameters, attempts could be made to identify the reduced Fe sites. For the two-electron reduced cluster, EPR and Mossbauer data indicate that the cluster is paramagnetic with a nonzero interger spin. For the one-electron reduced cluster, the data suggest a half-integer spin of 9/2. Characteristic fine and hyperfine parameters for all four Fe sites were obtained. Structural implications and the nature of the spin-coupling interactions are discussed.

Spectroscopic characterization of cytochrome c peroxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans, Gilmour, R., Goodhew C. F., Pettigrew G. W., Prazeres S., Moura I., and Moura J. J. , Biochem J, Sep 15, Volume 294 ( Pt 3), p.745-52, (1993) AbstractWebsite

The cytochrome c peroxidase of Paracoccus denitrificans is similar to the well-studied enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Like the Pseudomonas enzyme, the Paracoccus peroxidase contains two haem c groups, one high potential and one low potential. The high-potential haem acts as a source of the second electron for H2O2 reduction, and the low-potential haem acts as a peroxidatic centre. Reduction with ascorbate of the high-potential haem of the Paracoccus enzyme results in a switch of the low-potential haem to a high-spin state, as shown by visible and n.m.r. spectroscopy. This high-spin haem of the mixed-valence enzyme is accessible to ligands and binds CN- with a KD of 5 microM. The Paracoccus enzyme is significantly different from that from Pseudomonas in the time course of high-spin formation after reduction of the high-potential haem, and in the requirement for bivalent cations. Reduction with 1 mM ascorbate at pH 6 is complete within 2 min, and this is followed by a slow appearance of the high-spin state with a half-time of 10 min. Thus the process of reduction and spin state change can be easily separated in time and the intermediate form obtained. This separation is also evident in e.p.r. spectra, although the slow change involves an alteration in the low-spin ligation at this temperature rather than a change in spin state. The separation is even more striking at pH 7.5, where no high-spin form is obtained until 1 mM Ca2+ is added to the mixed-valence enzyme. The spin-state switch of the low-potential haem shifts the midpoint redox potential of the high-potential haem by 50 mV, a further indication of haem-haem interaction.

Spectroscopic definition of the CuZ° intermediate in turnover of nitrous oxide reductase and molecular insight into the catalytic mechanism, Johnston, E. M., Carreira C., Dell'Acqua S., Dey S. G., Pauleta S. R., Moura I., and Solomon E. I. , J Am Chem Soc, Volume 139, p.4462-4476, (2017)
Spectroscopic properties of desulfoferrodoxin from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 27774), Tavares, P., Ravi N., Moura J. J., Legall J., Huang Y. H., Crouse B. R., Johnson M. K., Huynh B. H., and Moura I. , J Biol Chem, Apr 8, Volume 269, Number 14, p.10504-10, (1994) AbstractWebsite

Desulfoferrodoxin, a non-heme iron protein, was purified previously from extracts of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 27774) (Moura, I., Tavares, P., Moura, J. J. G., Ravi, N., Huynh, B. H., Liu, M.-Y., and LeGall, J. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 21596-21602). The as-isolated protein displays a pink color (pink form) and contains two mononuclear iron sites in different oxidation states: a ferric site (center I) with a distorted tetrahedral sulfur coordination similar to that found in desulforedoxin from Desulfovibrio gigas and a ferrous site (center II) octahedrally coordinated with predominantly nitrogen/oxygen-containing ligands. A new form of desulfoferrodoxin which displays a gray color (gray form) has now been purified. Optical, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Mossbauer data of the gray desulfoferrodoxin indicate that both iron centers are in the high-spin ferric states. In addition to the EPR signals originating from center I at g = 7.7, 5.7, 4.1, and 1.8, the gray form of desulfoferrodoxin exhibits a signal at g = 4.3 and a shoulder at g = 9.6, indicating a high-spin ferric state with E/D approximately 1/3 for the oxidized center II. Redox titrations of the gray form of the protein monitored by optical spectroscopy indicate midpoint potentials of +4 +/- 10 and +240 +/- 10 mV for centers I and II, respectively. Mossbauer spectra of the gray form of the protein are consistent with the EPR finding that both centers are high-spin ferric and can be analyzed in terms of the EPR-determined spin Hamiltonian parameters. The Mossbauer parameters for both the ferric and ferrous forms of center II are indicative of a mononuclear high spin iron site with octahedral coordination and predominantly nitrogen/oxygen-containing ligands. Resonance Raman studies confirm the structural similarity of center I and the distorted tetrahedral FeS4 center in desulforedoxin and provide evidence for one or two cysteinyl-S ligands for center II. On the basis of the resonance Raman results, the 635 nm absorption band that is responsible for the gray color of the oxidized protein is assigned to a cysteinyl-S-->Fe(III) charge transfer transition localized on center II. The novel properties and possible function of center II are discussed in relation to those of mononuclear iron centers in other enzymes.

Spectroscopic properties of the cytochrome CD1 from the marine denitrifier Pseudomonas nautica, Besson, S., Carneiro C., Moura J. J. G., Moura I., and Fauque G. , Spectroscopy of Biological Molecules, p.263-264, (1995) AbstractWebsite